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Absolutism and State-Building I. Thomas Hobbes and the theory of Absolutism II. France under Louis XIV (1643-1715) III. England under the Stuarts (1603-40,

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Presentation on theme: "Absolutism and State-Building I. Thomas Hobbes and the theory of Absolutism II. France under Louis XIV (1643-1715) III. England under the Stuarts (1603-40,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolutism and State-Building I. Thomas Hobbes and the theory of Absolutism II. France under Louis XIV ( ) III. England under the Stuarts ( , )

2 Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

3 Absolutism A 17 th -18 th century form of gov’t in which the ruler possessed complete and unrivaled power A 17 th -18 th century form of gov’t in which the ruler possessed complete and unrivaled power NOT unlimited or arbitrary power NOT unlimited or arbitrary power The power to make laws and the claim that the monarch was above the law The power to make laws and the claim that the monarch was above the law Belief in Divine Right Belief in Divine Right

4 The Practice of Absolutism Weakening representative assemblies Weakening representative assemblies Subordinating nobility to monarchy Subordinating nobility to monarchy Building state bureaucracy Building state bureaucracy Imposing religious and linguistic conformity Imposing religious and linguistic conformity Building armies Building armies

5 II. France under Louis XIV ( ) A. The Man B. His Palace C. His Reign D. Comparison with Kangxi of China

6 Louis XIV Receiving Visitors

7 Versailles

8 Versailles

9 Hall of Mirrors

10 Sun King Emblem

11 Louis XIV’s Bedroom

12 C. Louis XIV’s Reign 1. Religious policy of intolerance - Huguenots, Edict of Nantes (1598) 2. Social policy of neglect 3. Foreign policy of war 4. Economic policy of mercantilism

13 Mercantilism A collection of government policies designed to regulate economic commerce for the benefit of the state A collection of government policies designed to regulate economic commerce for the benefit of the state Development of colonies and favorable balance of trade Development of colonies and favorable balance of trade

14 D. Absolutism in China: Kangxi ( )

15 III. England under the Stuarts A. Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth B. The Elizabethan Legacy C. Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I D. English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers E. Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act F. Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) G. Global Context

16 James I Personal Problems Personal Problems Economic Problems Economic Problems Religious Problems Religious Problems Administrative Problems Administrative Problems

17 Charles I

18 II. England under the Stuarts A. Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth B. The Elizabethan Legacy C. Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I D. English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers E. Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act F. Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) G. Global Context

19 Oliver Cromwell

20 “Oliver Cromwell as King”

21 Turning the World Upside Down Levellers – annual meetings for Parliament, paid MP’s, right to vote for all male heads of household Levellers – annual meetings for Parliament, paid MP’s, right to vote for all male heads of household Diggers – communal living and collective ownership of property Diggers – communal living and collective ownership of property Baptists – adult baptism (individual choice) Baptists – adult baptism (individual choice) Quakers – anyone inspired by God can preach, disdain for authority, refusal to swear oaths Quakers – anyone inspired by God can preach, disdain for authority, refusal to swear oaths

22 II. England under the Stuarts A. Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth B. The Elizabethan Legacy C. Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I D. English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers E. Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act F. Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) G. Global Context

23 John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) The great end of men’s entering into society being the enjoyment of their properties in peace and safety, and the great instrument and means of that being the laws established in that society, the first and fundamental positive law of all commonwealths is the establishing of the legislative power…. The legislative is not only the supreme power of the commonwealth, but sacred and unalterable….

24 What Happened in England? Great Rebellion Great Rebellion Puritan Revolution Puritan Revolution Last of Religious Wars Last of Religious Wars Liberty against Tyranny Liberty against Tyranny First Bourgeois Revolution First Bourgeois Revolution Revolution or Rebellion Revolution or Rebellion Revolution or Civil War Revolution or Civil War

25 Global Context “Crisis of the Seventeenth Century” as population growth leads to fiscal crisis, divisions among elites, and popular uprisings “Crisis of the Seventeenth Century” as population growth leads to fiscal crisis, divisions among elites, and popular uprisings Ottoman Empire, Ming China, Dutch Republic Ottoman Empire, Ming China, Dutch Republic Emergence of heterodox religious movements, e.g., Sufism, Taizhou School Emergence of heterodox religious movements, e.g., Sufism, Taizhou School


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