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Important Concepts You MUST Know About Section 7: The Shift From ‘Realism’ to ‘Religion’ After the Fall of the Western (Roman Empire), the style of art.

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Presentation on theme: "Important Concepts You MUST Know About Section 7: The Shift From ‘Realism’ to ‘Religion’ After the Fall of the Western (Roman Empire), the style of art."— Presentation transcript:

1 Important Concepts You MUST Know About Section 7: The Shift From ‘Realism’ to ‘Religion’ After the Fall of the Western (Roman Empire), the style of art changed dramatically. Creating ideals proportions took a backseat to teaching the narratives and symbolism of Christianity. The Parts of the Christian Churches The terminology of the churches is used throughout the AP Test. Know all of the terms associated with this presentation. Central Plan vs. Basilica Plan Originally, there were two basic types of Christian Church plans. Knowing these plans (and why they were designed as such) should aid you in learning how the needs of Christianity affected these layouts.

2 Late Antiquity / Early Christian Constantine moved his capital to Byzantium and renamed it CONSTANTINOPLE. Most pieces of Jewish Art were destroyed, and the Jewish people often faced special taxes, restrictions and even persecution The Roman Empire split permanently by Emperor Theodosius I into two parts: The WESTERN EMPIRE (Roman) The EASTERN EMPIRE (Byzantine) Rome is sacked by the Visigoths Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman emperor, is deposed by the German Odoacer Justinian becomes Eastern Roman emperor. Constantinople covers eight square miles (Manhattan covers twenty-two square miles) with at least 500,000 inhabitants. 532­37 - Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Byzantine Emperor Leo III orders all icons in the Byzantine Empire destroyed. Quick Timeline

3 Early Christian Like their pagan contemporaries, wealthy Christians preferred to be buried in marble sarcophagi. The richly carved Sarcophagus of Junius Bassius was made for an important Roman official who converted to Christianity before his death in 359. This tends to be an important piece as it combines Christian themes with Classical architectural and figural elements. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c 359. EARLY CHRISTIAN

4 Two registers, 10 panels of OLD and NEW Testament scenes… Christ is depicted in center with Roman themes.

5 Sculpture Sarcophagus with philosopher, Rome, Italy, ca 270 Jesus is represented by two figures on the right, the small child being baptized and the Shepherd to his left. The future ministry of Jesus is represented by the turned head of the young boy to the Shepherd and by the placement of his hand on one of the sheep. This is Jesus as a child receiving a baptism in the River Jordan even though he was baptized at age thirty. Baptism was significant in the early centuries of Christianity because so many adults were converted to the new faith in this manner. Early Christian

6 Ivory Carving Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion of Christ, plaque from a casket, ivory, ca 420 The narrative on the box begins with Pilate washing his hands, Jesus carrying the cross on the road to Calvary, and the denial of Peter, all compressed into a single panel. The plaque that is illustrated here is the next in the sequence and shows, at the left, Judas hanging from a tree with his open bag of silver dumped on the ground beneath his feet. the Crucifixion is at the right. The Virgin Mary and Joseph are to the left of the cross. On the other side Longinus thrusts his spear into the side of the "King of the Jews." The two remaining panels show two Marys and two soldiers at the open doors of a tomb with an empty coffin and the doubting Thomas touching the wound of the risen Christ. The figure of Christ does not appear to be in pain because he is displayed on the cross, rather than hung from it, as though he has conquered death and does not suffer. The contrast of Jesus whose body remains strong on the cross contrasts with the body of his betrayer, Judas, hanging from a tree with a limp body and a snapped neck. Visually and symbolically, this image was meant to show Jesus as a strong leader and not prone to pain or complete death. Early Christian

7 Narthex Side Aisles Clerestory Nave Apse Triforium BASILICA-PLAN CHURCH (West) See Santa Sabina, p.170.

8 Late Antiquity / Early Christian Santa Sabina, Rome, c AD EARLY CHRISTIAN

9 Late Antiquity / Early Christian Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c AD EARLY CHRISTIAN

10 Late Antiquity / Early Christian Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c AD EARLY CHRISTIAN

11 Byzantine Art When Emperor Justinian decide to build a church in Constantinople (the greatest city in the world for 400 years), he wanted to make it as grand as his empire. He assigned the task to two mathematicians, Anthemius and Isidorus. They created the Hagia Sophia (“Holy Wisdom”) Nearly 3 football fields long, and the dome is 180 in diameter! This architectural feat was accomplished with the use of pendentives. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. BYZANTINE

12 Byzantine Art

13 Large, decorated pendentives inside the Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. BYZANTINE Byzantine Art

14 Byzantine Mosaic Basics: Three F’s and a G FLAT: FLOATING: FRONTAL: GOLD BACKGROUNDS: Although the artist includes some shading, figures appear flat, lacking volume that was common with Classical Art. Figures appear to hover over the ground. Note the pointed 45-degree angle of the feet. Unlike the realistic overlapping seen in most Classical art, Byzantine figures are usually turned toward the viewer. Byzantine Art shows very little interest in a background. Byzantine art focuses more on conveying Christian teachings and depicting important figures than on representing the natural world.

15 Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c AD EARLY CHRISTIAN Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, Church of San Vitale, c547. BYZANTINE


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