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Chapter 17 Religion and Reform: Evangelicals and Enthusiasts, 1800–1850.

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1 Chapter 17 Religion and Reform: Evangelicals and Enthusiasts, 1800–1850

2 Age of Reason, Age of Reaction By early1800s many Americans not church goers Deists Supreme being No denominational creed Jesus as great moral teacher Believed in rational choices Many early leaders including Washington Unitarians and Universalists Unitarians rejected idea of a trinity Grew rapidly in early 1800s More upper class and intellectuals Universalists rejected predestination of Calvinists Farmers and humble town folk

3 Age of Reason, Age of Reaction Age of Reason, Age of Reaction (cont.’d) Camp meeting revivals Cane Ridge Multi-day camping events Emotional, frenzied “shows” Many passionate conversions Evangelical denominations Disciples of Christ founded 1804 Break of from Presbyterians who rejected Calvinism Personal conversion experience Baptists Believed in adult baptism Believed in literal truth of Bible

4 Age of Reason, Age of Reaction Age of Reason, Age of Reaction (cont.’d) Methodists fasting growing denomination in 1800s Founded by John Wesley in Britain Demanded strict moral behavior Circuit riders

5 The Burned Over District Second Great Awakening Charles Finney leading preacher Area of western New York Poor farmland Inhabited by many immigrants Waves of religious revivalism “burned over district” Spiritualism and magic popular Three religious sects born here

6 The Burned Over District Adventists William Miller predicts end of world Thousands wait expectantly “Great Disappointment” Seventh-Day Adventists develop from this later Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Joseph Smith founder of Mormon church The Book of Mormon Believes Christ visited New World Revelations by God to Smith ongoing; very charismatic Proxy baptism Polygamy

7 The Burned Over District Mormon persecution Mormons prospered as they move west Ohio then Missouri Nauvoo, Illinois Mormons voted as a bloc Collectively wealthy Disliked outsiders Joseph Smith murdered Utah: Mormon Zion Brigham Young new leader - realist Move to great Salt Lake Basin Mormons prosper Mormons under U.S. control Brigham territorial governor

8 The Burned Over District Oneida John Humphrey Noles Post-millenialist Said heaven here on earth and so sinless Practice free love or complex marriage Gave it up and survive as skilled craftsmen of silverware Shakers: Celibate, hard workers, fair and open with outsiders Spiritualism Fox sisters held séances to help folks communicate with the dead

9 Evangelical Reformers Thomas Gallaudet works to reform education for deaf Samuel Gridley Howe reforms education for blind Prisons Physical punishment, hanging traditional Correctional institutions new concept Focus on reforming prisoner Pennsylvania System, Auburn System Dorothea Dix reforms treatment of insane

10 Reformers Reformers (cont.’d) Blue Hawaii Population devastated by disease brought by whalers Missionaries Demon Rum Americans traditionally drank large amounts Temperance movement stressed ill effects Temperance movement spread rapidly Prohibition Moderation vs. abstinence Moral suasionists vs. legal suasionists Prohibition laws difficult to enforce

11 Reformers Reformers (cont.’d) Women’s Movement Backbone of missionary movement Women active in reform movements espcially in Northeast Women speak out for more rights Seneca Falls 1848 “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions” Women demand vote, economic control Lucretia Coffin Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Women’s rights pushed aside for abolition

12 Abolitionists Early abolitionists Focus on moral, religious issues Mostly Quakers John Woolman, Benjamin Lundy Usually support gradual emancipation Includes educated African-Americans New abolitionists David Walker calls for violence William Lloyd Garrison attacks masters as evil Garrison persecuted in North Garrison a monster to the South

13 Abolitionists (cont’d) American Anti-Slavery Society Sponsored speakers like Theodore Weld Included southerners who against slavery Black Abolitionists Contributed most of money to newspapers and speakers Sojourner Truth Frederick Douglass Mrs. Stowe and Uncle Tom Great abolitionist propaganda Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) Condemned slavery as institution Most readers attracted by lurid descriptions

14 Discussion Questions What factors caused the development of so many Christian denominations in the 1800s? Examine the various reform movements of the mid-1800s. What forces in society caused these movements to occur at this time? What was the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention? Why did it take so long for the women’s movement to be accepted in mainstream culture? Examine the Mormons. Why did they move West? What aspects of their culture and religion set them apart from the rest of the country? Describe the abolitionist movement. Who were the key leaders and how did they differ? What were their arguments against slavery?

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