Challenge of Christendom And High Middle Ages Chapters 7 and 8
Two English Sources of Light Much violence throughout Europe Monasteries were sources of spirituality and learning Brought forth great missionaries
Read the story of Boniface and answer: What do you think of Boniface’s approach to converting people to Christianity? What modern act would be comparable to Boniface’s chopping down the sacred oak tree? What “sacred trees” do people have now that if struck down would convince them that their old ways are inadequate? What behaviors of government leaders today have been condemned by Christian voices? Are Christians today usually as direct as Boniface was? Would they be so direct? What are some ways that Christianity is best spread today?
Boniface German regions Unique approach ◦ Respect ◦ Logic Tree story Crowned Pepin “King of the Franks” Martyred
Bede Spent life in a monastery Teaching and writing Wrote A History of the English Church and People Monasteries fostered scholarship despite violent times in the west
Church and State Entangled Pepin’s protection of Rome and donation of Papal States =entanglement Charlemagne – forced conversion and reunited Roman Empire in West Pope Leo III crowned him emperor and thus distanced church from East, deepened political entanglements
Pepin King of the Franks Drives Lombards away from Rome Donation of Pepin ◦ Papal States: territory Pope is the ruler Causes conflict Brings about spiritual and material role- difficult to balance
Charlemagne Charles: Pepin’s son Conversion by the sword ◦ Kill Bishop=Death ◦ Refuse Baptism=Death ◦ Organize revolt=Death Protected the church Appointed clergy to governmental positions Encouraged education BUT dominated church affairs
Pope Leo III Crowned Charlemagne “Emperor of the Romans” Signaled church break away from the East Church becoming one with the state
Review: Changes in Baptism and Penance Infant Baptism –common by 500 to 800 Reasons: Whole families were baptized together Mid-wives – baptized infants High mortality rate –wipe away original sin – feared kept out of heaven Confirmation – for adults
Penance (Reconciliation) Irish monks felt a need for regular confession of sins so private confession began (by 900) Loss: of communal sense of sin – that it affects the whole community
Feudal way of life Charlemagne’s empire splintered by Viking invaders Feudalism – way of life Bishops and abbots – large landholders Monasteries reflected feudal estates
Other Peoples turn Christian Vikings – from Scandanavia Cyril and Methodius – in East – developed the written Slavic language. Vladimir I – in Russia – Byzantine Church ◦ Spoke to all religions to survive Liturgy celebrated in Latin, Greek and Slavic
Royal pains for the Church Civil interference in church affairs and corruption became rampant by 900s Counts and dukes appointed their supporters bishops Rich men could buy religious office Roman families and German Emperors controlled papacy.
Reform movement of Cluny Called the Church back to its original spirit 900s Benedictine monastery Independent from local lord Monks selected abbot-reported to pope Led the way for the church to liberate itself from civil control Enthusiasm for better Christian life spread
Conclusions Christendom ◦ Papal States ◦ Popes crowned emperors ◦ Controlled by them ◦ Bishops and abbots appointed by civil rulers Missionaries ◦ Boniface ◦ Cyril ◦ Methodius
Implications Papal States had strings ◦ Pope as ruler rather than spiritual leader Latin Mass ◦ Affected the church for the next 1100 years In every age, the church strugglese to be faithful to the vision Jesus gave it; at some times it does so more successfully than at others
Times are Changing Urban culture Monastic agricultural methods Towns – centers of trade ◦ Grew around cathedrals ◦ Workers formed guilds Rise of nation states ◦ Kings grew stronger ◦ England and France
High Times for the Church Popes asserted more power Cathedrals Universities grew
Pope Gregory VII Reform papacy and clergy Freed church from secular control Banned lay investiture ◦ civil leaders appointing church officials and requiring loyalty ◦ Henry IV objected- excommunicated ◦ Concordat of Worms –settled controversy – all bishops elected and consecrated by church authority
College of Cardinals Pope elected by people of Rome often controlled by kings or Roman families College of Cardinals ◦ bishops from around area ◦ two thirds vote
Reform for priests Many uneducated and subject to secular control Celibacy required ◦ more availability to God ◦ Sexual intercourse was seen as incompatible with sacred character of clerical state Education at Cathedral schools Dedicated themselves to ordained ministry
Cathedrals Physical expressions of Christian faith Meeting places Sleeping area for poor Pictorial Bible for illiterate folk Took years to build Made huge contributions to architecture and engineering Romanesque Gothic
Universities Studied rhetoric, logic, literature, and mathematics, theology, philosophy, law and medicine Teachers had a license Students earned degrees Teachers announced classes No books Took few notes Church supported universities
Great Schism 1054 Eastern and Western churches split A number of differences Papal authority differences in politics Language Iconoclast controversy Customs Religious practice.
We have been talking about the church as the People of God, the Body of Christ. What do disputes within the church do to the church? On a practical level, what are some concrete effects of division among people who call themselves Christian? Vatican Council II declared that healing divisions in the Christian community was a top priority. Why? Have you seen any sign that tolerance of other people’s religions is greater now then in the past? What does the Church need to do in a effort to bring Christians together?
Crusades 1095 – Pope Urban II –started Crusades to help free Byzantine territory from Turks and Holy Land from Saracen Muslims Save the Holy Land Became corrupt Knights massacred Jews and Muslims in Jerusalem Knights granted indulgences ◦ Sins were forgiven and punishment expected for them in afterlife was taken away
Church and War –pp162-163 Just War theory – Ambrose, Augustine and Thomas Aquinas ◦ Copy, memorize criteria
Christians and War Pacifists Crusades Just War Theory
Why must there be limits, even in war? What are some of these limits? Given the criteria for just war, is nuclear, or chemical warfare ever just? Why would these weapons be considered no-win? Where does peace begin? Where does the principle of loving your neighbor and doing good to your enemies fit into Aquinas’s argument?If instead of saying for a war to be just, Aquinas had said for a war to be loving, what three conditions would Aquinas have made to create a loving- war theory? Is it possible to have a loving war?
Heresy and Inquisition Albigensians ◦ All material things, including human body were bad Reason for rise ◦ Clergy and monks ◦ Living an easy life and neglecting Gospel Marriage was evil Free from life –suicide Heresy: goodness of creation and sacredness of human life
Pope Innocent III – “heretics are to be overcome by reasoning, not by force” sent St. Dominic and St. Francis Pope’s representative – assassinated Pope –military Crusade Papal Inquisition
Roots of Inquisition (inquiry) – read page 128 Great fear of heresy – feared civilization – torn apart + eternal damnation for heretics Not just a religious belief but treason – state crime – stability threatened. Civil authorities-involved in punishing heretics –tortured, burned at stake.After 1150-bishops ran inquisitions
Mendicant friars: from monasteries to streets Mendicant - means beggar Friar – brother Read section – do questions for review – page 173 Dominic, Francis, Clare and Thomas Aquinas
Dominic Story on pg. 169-170 Wander through towns singing Sleep by the road Later Dominicans lived in communal houses Excellent scholars Better understand the truth of the Gospel and wisdom of tradition
Francis Soldier Visions of Christ Lived as a poor man– taking care of sick and needy Wandered countryside repairing run down churches, and serving lame, blind, poor and afflicted
Clare Founded an order which attempted to rely totally on God Poor Clares Depended on gifts from outside the convent walls
Thomas Aquinas Greatest scholar to emerge from time Based method of theology on Aristotle But based thinking on Bible Summa Theologiae Thinking gave theology method
Review for essays Heresy/inquisition Lay investiture/Papal reforms Great Schism Important people