Presentation on theme: "Theological Development In the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements."— Presentation transcript:
Theological Development In the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements
Theological Sources Arminian, Wesleyan, Holiness theology, leading to a desire for an experiential religion. Proto-Fundamentalist thought on healing (e.g., A. J. Gordon, A. B. Simpson [Fourfold Gospel]). Reaction against liberalism, primarily at the level of culture and passion. Edward Irving’s Catholic Apostolic Church and John Dowie’s Christian CAC.
Early Pentecostal Themes: Three-Stage Soteriology 1.Saved by grace. 2.Emptied or sanctified (yieldedness). 3.Filled with the Spirit (the initial sign is speaking in tongues). –NB: the second stage was rejected by “finished work” Pentecostalism in the A of G and the Foursquare churches.
Early Pentecostal Themes: The Foursquare Gospel 1.Jesus saves (John 3:16). 2.Jesus baptizes with the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:4). 3.Jesus heals bodily (James 5:15). 4.Jesus is coming again to receive those who are saved (1 Thessalonians 4:16-17).
Example: A of G on Spirit Baptism (part 1) All believers are entitled to and should ardently expect and earnestly seek the promise of the Father, the baptism in the Holy Spirit and fire, according to the command of our Lord Jesus Christ. This was the normal experience of all in the early Christian Church. With it comes the enduement of power for life and service, the bestowment of the gifts and their uses in the work of the ministry.
Example: A of G on Spirit Baptism (part 2) This experience is distinct from and subsequent to the experience of the new birth. With the baptism in the Holy Spirit come such experiences as: an overflowing fullness of the Spirit, a deepened reverence for God, an intensified consecration to God and dedication to His work, and a more active love for Christ, for His Word and for the lost,
Example: A of G on Tongues The baptism of believers in the Holy Spirit is witnessed by the initial physical sign of speaking with other tongues as the Spirit of God gives them utterance. The speaking in tongues in this instance is the same in essence as the gift of tongues, but is different in purpose and use.
Example: A of G on Healing Divine healing is an integral part of the gospel. Deliverance from sickness is provided for in the atonement, and is the privilege of all believers.
Other Pentecostal Practices Prophecy (pronouncement of a message from God). Words of Wisdom (supernatural guidance for decisions). Words of Knowledge (reception of factual information from the Spirit). Interpretation of Tongues. Jericho March (congregational prayer walk).
Peculiarities of Old Pentecostalism Cultural and denominational withdrawal. Doctrinal imprecision. Much of the Pentecostal movement is anti-Trinitarian. Emphasis upon emotion. Female leadership (Maria Woodworth-Etter, Aimee Semple McPherson).
Differences in the Charismatic Movement (Second Wave) Culturally and denominationally engaged. Tongues is not necessarily the invariable sign of Spirit baptism; some rethinking of Spirit baptism. Stronger emphasis upon some practices, such as being “slain in the Spirit” and “dancing in the Spirit.”
Similarities in the Charismatic Movement Female leadership (Kathryn Kuhlman). Emphasis upon emotion. Doctrinal imprecision (e.g., the Catholic charismatic movement). Most practices (less Jericho March) Healing in the atonement (usually).
Prosperity (Health and Wealth) Theology Broader than the Charismatic movement (i.e., Rev. Ike). God’s will is to bless His people and He has made provision to do so. Positive confession: the believer can “name it and claim it.” Believers can speak wealth into existence. Often, some token of initial faith (i.e., a donation) is encouraged or required.
Word of Faith Movement Includes a form of prosperity theology. Comes from the teachings of E. W. Kenyon. Early promoter was Kenneth Hagin, Sr. Resulted in a shift away from “healing evangelists” as leaders of the Charismatic movement. Experienced explosive growth during 1980s. Powerful influence worldwide.
Word of Faith Theology Healing is included in Christ’s atonement. The “Blood covenant” makes us God’s family and guarantees protection from violence, sickness, and poverty. Positive confession. Believers become “little gods” because they are born of God. Jesus died spiritually for sins in hell, then was born again.
Prosperity and Word of Faith Preachers Kenneth Hagin, Sr. Hobart Freeman Jim Bakker (early) Robert Tilton Kenneth Copeland Benny Hinn Creflo Dollar I. V. Hilliard Frederick K. C. Price Keith Butler Clinton Utterbach Bill Winston T. D. Jakes Joel Osteen
The Third Wave C. Peter Wagner, Fuller Seminary prof. John Wimber, founder of Vineyard Fellowship. Gordon Fee, retired NT prof. Jack Deere, former Dallas Seminary prof. Charles Kraft, Fuller Seminary prof. Wayne Grudem, Phoenix Seminary prof. John Piper, former Minneapolis pastor.
Theological Crux: Inaugurated Eschatology The Kingdom has been inaugurated and Christians have access to Kingdom authority. Kingdom authority is manifested through “power encounters” in which the Kingdom of God confronts the kingdom of this world. Physical healing and exorcism are direct manifestations of Kingdom authority.
Other Features, Variously Held Ongoing prophetic revelation. There is controversy over what this means and how authoritative it is. The Fivefold Ministry, including apostles. This, too, engenders controversy. Resurrections as power encounters (applications of Kingdom authority). This is the most controversial.
Spiritual Warfare (Wagner) Ground-level spiritual warfare: exorcisms and deliverances. Occult-level spiritual warfare: opposition to Satanism, Freemasonry, witchcraft. Strategic-level spiritual warfare: confrontation and removal of territorial spirits.
Strategic Level Spiritual Warfare Territorial spirits rule cities, nations, cultures, and generations (Dan. 10:13) Satanic forces can be disarmed, and the Christian is in the offensive position (Eph. 6:12). Satan is a strong man, but the Church is the stronger man, and it has authority to bind Satan and render him powerless (L. 11:21-22).
SLSW Methodology Experimentation is necessary. Interviewing demons is useful. Spiritual mapping: research territory to discover the inroads of Satan. Warfare prayer is communication with the commander; involves confession of structural evils. Souls will be won and society will improve.
What Is the Appeal? The attraction of the hidden, paranormal, or paranormal. The desire for status, both within the movement and by doing the remarkable. The yearning for experiential religion. –Many are from formal but dead churches. –Many are from doctrinaire Fundamentalist environments.
What Is the Solution? Theological opposition, to be sure. Careful cultivation of the affections, a matter that is almost entirely overlooked in Fundamentalism today. Cultural awareness: some understanding of how cultures and their expressions communicate truth and falsehood. Willingness to subordinate political agendas to spiritual wellbeing.
The Solution, Part Deux Commitment by pastors and other Christian leaders themselves to spiritual discipline and the modeling of an ordered devotional life before God’s people. A shift in the focus of Christian leadership from institutions in which the daily lives of the leaders are not open and obvious to God’s people, toward pastors whose lives are open to examination.