Presentation on theme: "Suzy Young † T. Hill Henry ‡ Elizabeth Burton ¶ Jesse Morris ¶ † ARCADIS U.S., Inc.; ‡ Tennessee Valley Authority; ¶ Restoration Services, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Suzy Young † T. Hill Henry ‡ Elizabeth Burton ¶ Jesse Morris ¶ † ARCADIS U.S., Inc.; ‡ Tennessee Valley Authority; ¶ Restoration Services, Inc.
Image taken August 14, 2009 Image taken June 2007
Tree swallows are widely distributed throughout the United States and are a breeding migratory species in eastern Tennessee. Tree swallows readily use nest boxes, a controllable and accessible environment, so they can be attracted to study areas. Tree swallows feed near their nest box on emergent aquatic insects.
Determine whether trace elements are bioavailable to tree swallows. Determine whether tree swallows are maternally transferring trace elements to young. Determine whether bioaccumulation and maternal transfer result in adverse effects to tree swallow populations.
Reference Site 1: Loudoun DamReference Site 2: Tellico Dam Historically Impacted Site: Melton Hill Dam Tree Swallows Total Boxes = 530 Eggs Collected: n = 63 (2009) n = 155 (2010) Nestlings Collected: n = 47 (2009) n = 65 (2010) Kingston Fossil Plant
Deformed American coot embryo (A) from a nest in the vicinity of a southeast Idaho phosphate mine tailings reservoir. The deformity exhibited here—curly toe—is similar to that induced by Se in chickens (B, deformed; C, normal). 80ppm From: Skorupa & Ohlendorf, Contaminants in drainage water and avian risk thresholds. Pp In: The economics and management of water and drainage in agriculture (Dinar & Ziberman, eds). wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/Selenium/Mining.htm Sibling stilt embryos collected from a single nest on the same day from a Tulare Basin evaporation pond in the Southern San Joaquin Valley in The overtly teratogenic embryo on the left, exhibiting stunted growth, no eyes, deformed bones (in right foot) contained 72 parts per million selenium(dry weight, whole egg), while the overtly normal sibling, on the right, contained 16 parts per million selenium. A – gadwall (deformed lower bill, spoonbill narrowing of upper bill, missing eyes) B – northern pintail (deformed lower bill, spoonbill narrowing of upper bill, missing eyes) Gadwall embryo Northern Pintail embryo Irrigation-Induced Contamination of Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Western United States – Synthesis of Data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program. U.S. Geological Survey.
Tukey-Kramer Emory vs. Ref (p=0.046) MHD vs. Ref (p=0.042) 2010 FLDClinch River Emory River MHD Selenium Concentrations in Eggs (mg/kg dry weight) Location ReferenceImpacted Historically Impacted FLD Tennessee River Clinch River Emory River MHDEmbayments Selenium Concentrations in Eggs (mg/kg dry weight) Location ReferenceImpacted Historically Impacted Tukey-Kramer Emory vs. Ref (p<0.0001) Embayments vs. Ref (p=0.0044) Clinch vs. Ref (p=0.018) Tennessee vs. Ref (p=0.0092) MHD vs. Ref (p=0.0097) p< p=0.042 p=0.046 p=0.0097p=0.0044p=0.0092p=0.018
2-way ANOVA: Year, Location, Interaction Year Iron Magnesium Potassium Sodium Zinc Location Manganese Selenium Strontium Detected Metals (>5%) Barium Cadmium Calcium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Potassium Selenium Silver Sodium Strontium Zinc
2010 FLD Clinch River Emory River MHD Selenium Concentrations in 15-day Nestlings (mg/kg dry weight) Location ReferenceImpacted Historically Impacted FLD Clinch River Emory River MHD Selenium Concentrations in 15-day Nestlings (mg/kg dry weight) Location ReferenceImpacted Historically Impacted
Selenium Concentrations in 15-day Nestlings (mg/kg dry weight) Location ReferenceImpacted Historically Impacted 2-way ANOVA Year (p=0.052) Location (p<0.0001) Interaction (p=0.25) Tukey-Kramer MHD vs all other locations (p<0.0001)
Clutch sizes ranged from 2-7 eggs (mean=4.33, n=155). Average hatching success was similar among sites in 2010, ranging from 84.39% to 93.24% (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.25). Nestling survival to day 15 did not differ between sites (Kruskal- Wallis, p=0.27).
Relationships between egg concentrations, egg shells, and nestlings collected from the same nests. Correlations between egg metrics and metal concentrations. Relationships between adult mayfly concentrations and concentrations in 15-day nestlings. Food chain modeling for tree swallows using adult mayfly concentrations and modeled invertebrate concentrations.
Certain trace elements (i.e., Se) are elevated in egg tissues of tree swallows. Tree swallow nestlings from the historically impacted location appear to be at greatest risk of exposure to selenium. Full scale physiological/reproductive studies will determine whether exposure to trace elements has adverse effects on tree swallows.
Adam Johnson Travis Walls Neil Carriker Wes James Ken Weisz Lori Whitehorse Amber Stojak Jackie Iannuzzi Tom Bock Jason Brown David Greenberg Dr. William Hopkins U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency Kingston City Parks and Recreation Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Humphreys Mr. and Mrs. McMurray