2Organization ofgovernmentsStateBranchLegislativeAssemblyGeneralRepresentativesHouse ofState SenateExecutiveGovernorLieutenantJudicialAppealsCourt ofCourt of SpecialCircuit Courts
3Executive Branch of a State The executive branch of state government is made up of departments and agencies. It is headed by the governor.As the chief executive the governor has considerable power. Duties are much like the duties of the President of the United States.Appoint heads of departmentsDraw up the state budgetAct as commander in chief of the National Guard in emergencies such as floods, hurricanes, or riots
4Powers and Duties of a Governor Chief executive of the stateAppoints people to fill important state jobsRecommends how money is to be raised and spentCommander in chief of state militiaCalls up state police and National guard when they are needed.Pardons prisoners in certain casesProposes laws to the legislatureLeader of his/her political party in the state.Presides over important ceremonies.
5State OfficialsLieutenant Governor- the second most important official in the state. This person is elected in 34 states. He/She serves as the leader of the Senate in 28 states.Attorney General- Chief legal officer in the state. She/He advises the governor on matters dealing with the law.Secretary of state- Keeps official records, publishes laws passed by the state, and oversees much of the state’s official business.
6State OfficialsComptroller or state auditor- Controls the spending of state money and is in charge of keeping financial records for the state.State treasurer- Collects taxes due to the state and pays bills owed by the state after they have been approved by the state auditor.Superintendant of public instruction- Top educational official of the state. She/He works with the board of education to carry out the laws and to set qualifications for teachers of the state.
7State Agencies Administration Agriculture Division of Building Safety, Career Information System, IdahoChild Support ServicesChildren's Trust Fund, IdahoCommerceCorrectionEducationState Board of Education,Environmental Quality,Family & Community ServicesFinanceFish & GameHealth & WelfareHealth Districts Conference OfficeHealth District 1 (Panhandle)Health District 2 (North Central)Health District 3 (Southwest)Health District 4 (Central)Health District 5 (South Central)Health District 6 (Southeastern)Health District 7 (Eastern)
8State Agencies Historical Society, Idaho State Insurance, Juvenile Corrections, Department ofLaborLandsLibraries, Idaho Commission forMedicaidMissing Person ClearinghouseParks & Recreation, StateProfessional-Technical Education, Idaho Division ofPublic Television, IdahoDivision of Public Works,Division of Purchasing,State Police (ISP)Idaho State Tax Commission,Tax FormsTransportationRevenue & Taxation,Veterans Services, Idaho StateVocational Rehabilitation, IdahoWater ResourcesWelfare, Division of
9Legislative Branch of a State Powers:Legislative:pass laws to govern issues within their state that do not conflict with the Federal Constitution.Power of the PurseNon-legislative:appointment powers in some states.Judicial powers—impeachment of state officers.Constituent powers—constitutional amendments.Direct legislation:Initiative—Voters propose constitutional amendments.Referendum—citizens directly approve or reject a law.
10Legislative Branch of a State The legislative branch of state government is made up of legislators who are in charge of making laws.Forty-nine of fifty states have bi-cameral legislatures. (Nebraska unicameral).Requirements:Set by individual states.Usually elected in regular election cycles.Minimal compensation.Legislative sessions differ from state to state.
11The Judicial Branch of States Broken down into three different court systemsLower State CourtsGeneral Trial courtsHigh State Supreme Court
12Lower State Courts Small towns Larger communities Justice of the Peace Disorderly conductLarger communitiesMagistrate/Municipal CourtsJuvenile courtsDomestic relations courtsSmall ClaimsMunicipal courts-deal with civil suits, minor criminal offenses, and probateProbate courts- settle questions about who should receive property after someone has died.
13General Trial Courts Criminal and Civil cases Judge and jury Felony-major crime (murder, arson)Misdemeanor-minor crime (littering, some forms of stealing)
14State Supreme CourtAn accused person who thinks he/she did not receive a fair trial in the lower court appeals to the state supreme court.Does not hold a new trial but reviews transcripts, records, and evidence and decides whether or not the accused person received a fair trial.
15Types of Local Governments Countythe largest political subdivision of the stateled by an elected group, called supervisors or commissionersResponsibilities include:keep the peace/maintain jailsassess propertycollect taxesbuild repair roads/bridgesrecord deeds and marriagesregister voters/supervise elections/administer wills
16Types of Local Governments Townshipunit of local government in fewer than half the states.primarily east coast rural areasSpecial Districtunit of local government that has a special functionlocal school district
17Types of Local Governments Municipalitya town, city, borough, or urban district whose legal rights are granted by the state by written agreement.
18Taxing and Spending Types of local taxes sales tax income tax regressive tax (same for all)45 states practicemakes up 1/3 of all the tax monies the state collectsincome taxprogressive tax (higher income= higher rate)43 states practicesome have Corporate income taxes
19Taxing and Spending Property tax Other taxes chief source of income for local governmentsmakes up about 80 percent of all tax receiptsOther taxesinheritance- applied to each heirestate- assessed on the deceased persons entire estatecertain business taxesseverance tax for removing natural resources (gas, oil, coal, and fish)licensure- doctors, lawyers, dentists, plumbers, and teachers
20Break Down of State & Local Spending Source: Magruder’s American Government 2009
21Break Down of State & Local Revenue Source: Magruder’s American Government 2009