Presentation on theme: "State and Local Governments. Organization of State governments Legislative Branch General Assembly House of Representatives State Senate Executive Branch."— Presentation transcript:
State and Local Governments
Organization of State governments Legislative Branch General Assembly House of Representatives State Senate Executive Branch Governor Lieutenant Governor Judicial Branch Court of Appeals Court of Special Appeals Circuit Courts
Executive Branch of a State The executive branch of state government is made up of departments and agencies. It is headed by the governor. As the chief executive the governor has considerable power. Duties are much like the duties of the President of the United States. –Appoint heads of departments –Draw up the state budget –Act as commander in chief of the National Guard in emergencies such as floods, hurricanes, or riots
Powers and Duties of a Governor Chief executive of the state Appoints people to fill important state jobs Recommends how money is to be raised and spent Commander in chief of state militia Calls up state police and National guard when they are needed. Pardons prisoners in certain cases Proposes laws to the legislature Leader of his/her political party in the state. Presides over important ceremonies.
State Officials Lieutenant Governor- the second most important official in the state. This person is elected in 34 states. He/She serves as the leader of the Senate in 28 states. Attorney General- Chief legal officer in the state. She/He advises the governor on matters dealing with the law. Secretary of state- Keeps official records, publishes laws passed by the state, and oversees much of the state’s official business.
State Officials Comptroller or state auditor- Controls the spending of state money and is in charge of keeping financial records for the state. State treasurer- Collects taxes due to the state and pays bills owed by the state after they have been approved by the state auditor. Superintendant of public instruction- Top educational official of the state. She/He works with the board of education to carry out the laws and to set qualifications for teachers of the state.
State Agencies Administration Agriculture Division of Building Safety, Career Information System, Idaho Child Support Services Children's Trust Fund, Idaho Commerce Correction Education State Board of Education, Environmental Quality, Family & Community Services Finance Fish & Game Health & Welfare Health Districts Conference Office Health District 1 (Panhandle) Health District 2 (North Central) Health District 3 (Southwest) Health District 4 (Central) Health District 5 (South Central) Health District 6 (Southeastern) Health District 7 (Eastern)
State Agencies Historical Society, Idaho State Insurance, Juvenile Corrections, Department of Labor Lands Libraries, Idaho Commission for Medicaid Missing Person Clearinghouse Parks & Recreation, State Professional-Technical Education, Idaho Division of Public Television, Idaho Division of Public Works, Division of Purchasing, State Police (ISP) Idaho State Tax Commission, Tax Forms Transportation Revenue & Taxation, Veterans Services, Idaho State Vocational Rehabilitation, Idaho Water Resources Welfare, Division of
Legislative Branch of a State Powers: –Legislative: pass laws to govern issues within their state that do not conflict with the Federal Constitution. Power of the Purse –Non-legislative: appointment powers in some states. Judicial powers—impeachment of state officers. Constituent powers—constitutional amendments. Direct legislation: –Initiative—Voters propose constitutional amendments. –Referendum—citizens directly approve or reject a law.
Legislative Branch of a State The legislative branch of state government is made up of legislators who are in charge of making laws. Forty-nine of fifty states have bi-cameral legislatures. (Nebraska unicameral). Requirements: –Set by individual states. –Usually elected in regular election cycles. –Minimal compensation. –Legislative sessions differ from state to state.
The Judicial Branch of States Broken down into three different court systems –Lower State Courts –General Trial courts –High State Supreme Court
Lower State Courts Small towns –Justice of the Peace Disorderly conduct Larger communities –Magistrate/Municipal Courts Juvenile courts Domestic relations courts Small Claims –Municipal courts-deal with civil suits, minor criminal offenses, and probate Probate courts- settle questions about who should receive property after someone has died.
General Trial Courts Criminal and Civil cases –Judge and jury –Felony-major crime (murder, arson) –Misdemeanor-minor crime (littering, some forms of stealing)
State Supreme Court An accused person who thinks he/she did not receive a fair trial in the lower court appeals to the state supreme court. –Does not hold a new trial but reviews transcripts, records, and evidence and decides whether or not the accused person received a fair trial.
Types of Local Governments County –the largest political subdivision of the state –led by an elected group, called supervisors or commissioners –Responsibilities include: keep the peace/maintain jails assess property collect taxes build repair roads/bridges record deeds and marriages register voters/supervise elections/administer wills
Types of Local Governments Township –unit of local government in fewer than half the states. –primarily east coast rural areas Special District –unit of local government that has a special function local school district
Types of Local Governments Municipality –a town, city, borough, or urban district whose legal rights are granted by the state by written agreement.
Taxing and Spending Types of local taxes –sales tax regressive tax (same for all) 45 states practice –makes up 1/3 of all the tax monies the state collects –income tax progressive tax (higher income= higher rate) 43 states practice some have Corporate income taxes
Taxing and Spending –Property tax chief source of income for local governments makes up about 80 percent of all tax receipts –Other taxes inheritance- applied to each heir estate- assessed on the deceased persons entire estate certain business taxes –severance tax for removing natural resources (gas, oil, coal, and fish) –licensure- doctors, lawyers, dentists, plumbers, and teachers
Break Down of State & Local Spending Source: Magruder’s American Government 2009
Break Down of State & Local Revenue Source: Magruder’s American Government 2009