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Waste Classification NUCP 2311 1. U.S. Waste Classifications 2 NCRP Report No. 139, 2002 NCRP Report No. 139, Risk-Based Classification of Radioactive.

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Presentation on theme: "Waste Classification NUCP 2311 1. U.S. Waste Classifications 2 NCRP Report No. 139, 2002 NCRP Report No. 139, Risk-Based Classification of Radioactive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Waste Classification NUCP

2 U.S. Waste Classifications 2 NCRP Report No. 139, 2002 NCRP Report No. 139, Risk-Based Classification of Radioactive and Hazardous Chemical Wastes (2002)

3 Radioactive Waste Categories Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1980, 1985) – High Level Waste (HLW)-spent fuel and reprecessing – Transuranic Waste (TRU)- DoD and DoE – Low Level Waste (LLW) Class A, B, C and GTCC – Uranium Mill Tailings – Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NORM and NARM) – Mixed Waste 3

4 High Level Waste 1.Spent Fuel: irradiated commercial reactor fuel 2.Reprocessing Waste: liquid waste from solvent extraction cycles in reprocessing. Also the solids into which liquid wastes may have been converted. NOTE: The Department of Energy defines HLW as reprocessing waste only, while the Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines HLW as spent fuel and reprocessing waste. 4 Definitions quoted from the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Website:

5 Transuranic Waste Waste containing elements with atomic numbers (number of protons) greater than 92, the atomic number of uranium. (Thus the term "transuranic," or "above uranium.") TRU includes only waste material that contains transuranic elements with half-lives greater than 20 years and concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram. If the concentrations of the half- lives are below the limits, it is possible for waste to have transuranic elements but not be classified as TRU waste. 5 Definitions quoted from the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Website:

6 Low Level Waste Defined by what it is not. It is radioactive waste not classified as high-level, spent fuel, transuranic or byproduct material such as uranium mill tailings. LLW has four subcategories: Classes A, B, C, and Greater-Than Class-C (GTCC), described below. On average, Class A is the least hazardous while GTCC is the most hazardous. 6 Definitions quoted from the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Website:

7 Mill Tailings The residual wastes from milled ore after the uranium has been extracted. Can be the remains of the mining of other metals in which uranium was a byproduct, something they were not looking for. Even thought the soil has less radioactive material in than the normal undug-up soil there are many chemicals that have been added to the soil to process it. Volumetrically and BIG problem

8 NORM-NARM NORM-Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material NARM- Naturally occurring or Accelerator produced Radioactive Material TENORM- Technically Enhance Natural Radioactive Material

9 Mixed Waste Waste that contains both radioactive and hazardous components. Is regulated by both the EPA and the NRC

10 Low Level Waste 10

11 Options for LLW Disposal Exemptions – Municipal landfill – RCRA landfill – Sanitary sewer

12 Basic Definition LLW is material which has been contaminated by or contains short-lived radionuclides or longer-lived radionuclides in relatively low concentrations Usually contaminated clothing, small equipment, cleaning materials, etc. 12

13 Class A On average the least radioactive of the four LLW classes. Primarily contaminated with "short-lived" radionuclides. (average concentration: 0.1 curies/cubic foot) Largest percentage of volume of waste generated 97% 13 Definitions quoted from the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Website:

14 Class B May be contaminated with a greater amount of "short-lived" radionuclides than Class A. (average concentration: 2 curies/cubic foot) Can remain active up to 300 years. 2% of total volume of waste generated

15 Class-C May be contaminated with greater amounts of long-lived and short-lived radionuclides than Class A or B. (average concentration: 7 curies/cubic foot) Remains active for more than 300 years. Requires deeper burial. 1% of total waste generated

16 Low Level Waste (cont’d) Greater Than Class C (GTCC) Most radioactive of the low-level classes. (average concentration: 300 to 2,500 curies/cubic foot) (The 300 figure is based on the 1985 inventory. The higher figure represents anticipated inventory in 2020, including some decommissioning wastes.) These wastes are the responsibility of the federal government (1985 LLRWPAA). They require deep burial by NRC regulation (1989). 16 Definitions quoted from the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Website:

17 Differences Greater than Class C Waste Vs High level waste Radionuclides involved Half lives Should that be treated the same Buried the same place

18 18 TABLE A. TABLE B.

19 Classification by Law (10CFR61) CLASS A Requirements – A package is Class A if any of the following conditions apply: 1.It does not contain any nuclides listed in Table A or B. 2.It contains nuclides listed in Table A with concentrations equal or less than 10% of the values given in Table A. 3.It contains nuclides listed in Table B with concentrations equal to or less than the values given in Column 1 of Table B. 4.Combinations of Cases 2 and 3 above. (This class is mostly trash, low-level resins, and biomedical waste that does not require stabilization). 19

20 Classification by Law (10CFR61) CLASS B Requirements – A package is Class B if the following conditions apply: 1.It contains nuclides listed in Table B with concentrations greater than the values given in Column 1 of but less or equal to than the values listed in Column 2. 2.If condition 1 applies but it also contains nuclides listed in Table A with concentrations equal to or less than 10% of the values given in Table A. 20

21 Classification by Law (10CFR61) 21 CLASS C Requirements  A package is Class C if the following conditions apply: 1.It contains nuclides listed in Table A with concentrations greater than 10% of the values given in Table A, but less than or equal to those values. (This waste may also contain nuclides in Table B with concentrations up to those in Column 3.) 2.It contains only nuclides listed in Table B with concentrations greater than the values given in Column 2 of but less than or equal to the values listed in Column 3. 3.If case 2 applies, it may also contain nuclides from Table A with concentrations equal to or less than 10% of the value in the table.

22 Classification by Law (10CFR61) 22 CLASS GTCC Requirements (also called C+)  A package is Class GTCC if either of the following apply: 1.It contains nuclides listed in Table A with concentrations greater than the values given in Table A. 2.It contains nuclides listed in Table B with concentrations greater than the values listed in Column 3.  No Rule of Mixtures!!

23 Fraction Rule (OLD NEWS) 23

24 24

25 Classification examples Classify the following packages: 1.Contains 3 mCi/m 3 99 Tc and 2.5 mCi/m 3 of 137 Cs 2.Contains 0.5 Ci/m 3 99 Tc and 18 Ci/m 3 of 63 Ni 3.Contains Ci/m I 25

26 Disposal Requirements for Class A, B, and C (10 CFR 61) 1.The waste must not be packaged for disposal in cardboard or fireboard boxes. 2.Liquid waste must be solidified or packaged in sufficient absorbent material to absorb twice the volume of liquid. 3.Liquids contained in solid waste shall not exceed 1% of the waste volume. 4.Waste must not be explosive or reactive at normal temperatures and pressures. 5.The waste must not contain or be capable of generating toxic gases, vapors, or fumes harmful to people (this does not apply to gaseous waste; see item 7). 26

27 Disposal Requirements for Class A, B, and C (10 CFR 61.56) 6.Waste must not be pyrophoric. 7.Gaseous waste must be packaged at a pressure of >1.5 atm at 20ºC and total activity must be less than 100 Ci per container. 8.Waste containing hazardous, biological, pathogenic, or infectious material need special treatment (see 10 CFR a). 27

28 28 Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory - Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) -Disposal of Waste in Pit. INEEL (Idaho Falls, ID) DOE Photo (Mar )

29 29 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) -Mixed Nature of Items in Trench at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory INEEL (Idaho Falls, ID) DOE Photo (Dec )

30 Volume of LLW Disposed ,680,000 ft ,842,000 ft ,842,000 ft ,428,000 ft ,626,000 ft ,143,000 ft3 Why the decrease? ,369,000 ft ,743,000 ft ,000 ft ,677 ft ,000 ft 3

31 31 J.H. Saling and A.W. Fentiman, “Radioactive Waste Management,” Second Edition, (Taylor & Francis, NY  London) 2002.

32 32 J.H. Saling and A.W. Fentiman, “Radioactive Waste Management,” Second Edition, (Taylor & Francis, NY  London) 2002.

33 Volume of Low-Level Waste at U.S. Disposal Facilities,

34 Radioactivity of Low-Level Waste at U.S. Disposal Facilities,

35 "As-Disposed" Volume Industry 60% Utilities 22% Military 5% Medical 11% Academic 2% Volume Distribution of Operational LLRW in Texas

36 "As-Disposed" Volume Radioactive Distribution of Operational LLRW in Texas Compact

37 An Example of LLRW Engineered Disposal Unit Design

38 Questions?


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