Presentation on theme: "Using Personal Narratives to Enhance Conversational Skills and Written Expression ISHA CONVENTION 2014 Presented by Gwynne McElhinney, M.S., CCC-SLP Creator."— Presentation transcript:
Using Personal Narratives to Enhance Conversational Skills and Written Expression ISHA CONVENTION 2014 Presented by Gwynne McElhinney, M.S., CCC-SLP Creator of Six-Second-Stories ® Gwynne McElhinney’s Lab for Social Intelligence at Lee Pesky Learning Center in Boise, Idaho
Disclosures Financial: I receive quarterly royalties from MindWing Concepts, Inc. (MWC) because I co-authored Facilitating Relationships! Six-Second-Stories® and Other Social Communication Strategies an instructional manual written to help adults foster social communication skill development in children and youth, published in In 2012, I received honoraria from MWC for teaching at two regional conferences on the East Coast. Nonfinancial: No relevant nonfinancial relationships exist. Employment: Solo, part-time, private practice focused on teaching students with language impairment/social learning challenges how to C.A.R.E.---Communicate and Relate Effectively---using a co-teaching approach in the classroom, and partnering with parents in my Lab.
MISSION STATEMENT for the SAN JOSE SCHOOL DISTRICT Our High School Graduates will be: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS INFORMED THINKERS SELF-DIRECTED LEARNERS COLLABORATIVE WORKERS INFORMATION PROCESSORS RESPONSIBLE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY M. Winner, 12/04 Seattle, WA Workshop
Overview of the Challenge To succeed academically & socially, students must learn how to: Listen & understand others’ thoughts and feelings (oral comprehension) Speak & be understood, when sharing their own thoughts and feelings (verbal expression) Read & understand others’ thoughts and feelings (reading comprehension) Write & be understood, when sharing their own thoughts and feelings (written expression) and always, Think Socially (relate effectively in the classroom & on the playground) The ability to communicate is the most difficult and remarkable feat of humankind. The ease with which most of us learn & use language blinds us to how complex the acquisition process really is, for those who struggle with what, to us, “just comes naturally…”
Combining Priorities According to Dr. Bonnie Brinton (in a workshop at USU in 2012): “ It’s good to work on language structure. “ It’s better to work on academics. It’s best to work on social interaction. With teamwork, we can do all three at once!” Social Competence refers to the skills & strategies that allow individuals to: have meaningful friendships, forge close, emotion-based relationships; productively collaborate with groups, teams, and work partners; manage public social settings and participate in family functioning Gutstein & Whitney (AS and the Development of Social Competence, Focus on Autism & Other DD, Vol. 17, #3, Fall 2002) According to the Mother of a Son with LI (in an article published by Brinton in 2009 ): “The Social Stuff is EVERYTHING!”
The Benefits of Narrative Instruction #1 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT: 90% of elementary curriculum is in narrative/story form The ability to independently tell and write stories is essential to social and academic success Competency on state testing depends on an awareness, and demonstration of, basic story structure for reading comprehension and writing Critical thinking and inferential skills draw on the concrete awareness of story elements and the relationships they have to each other Teacher’s Guide to the SGM Activity Booklet, now known as Talk to Write, Write to Learn by Moreau & Welch (1999)
The Benefits of Narrative Instruction #2 The ability to identify and develop plans and goals is crucial to academic and social success because these skills enable students to connect the “character’s” relationship to the beginning, middle and end of a story or to their own personal, life experiences (self-talk/self-regulation) Advancing curriculum and social competency require students to develop perspective-taking, the ability to “see” and “feel” situations through the eyes of another/from his or her point of view Perspective-taking underlies the ability to empathize, an absolutely vital skill Empathy is the basis for social & literate inferencing; both skill sets have broad implications for our society (effective problem-solving) Teacher’s Guide to the SGM Activity Booklet, now known as Talk to Write, Write to Learn by Moreau & Welch (1999)
Oral story telling Written story telling Personal narratives Poetry, drawing, pantomime, music Feelings (internal response) vocabulary Pragmatics: Tone of Voice, Volume, Facial Expressions and Body language NARRATIVE language is both emotional and literate. Narratives are the way to connect language, cognitive and social interactive components for children diagnosed with Language-based Learning Disabilities, ADD/ADHD, AS/HFA & social learning challenges. Narrative Language includes: Everything is held together That is all that is Interpretation of pictures and pictured scenes in stories. Critical Thinking Triangle® Activities Thought bubbles Conversation bubbles Social Stories™ (Gray) Cartoons Social Thinking®
Four Current Areas of Application for Narrative Development: Response to Intervention (RtI) Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Social Learning Challenges Common Core State Standards for ELA and Literacy Emotions, Mental States and Plans to Facilitate Comprehension, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution The “Core” of the Core: Using Story Grammar Marker and Other MindWing Concepts Tools to Support Students in Meeting Grade-Level Common Core State Standards (Moreau, 2012)
COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS CCSS English Language Arts Per Reading, Key Idea and Detail #3: Narrative development is essential. Kindergarten RL.K.3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. Grade 1 RL.1.3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. Grade 2 RL.2.3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. Grade 3 RL.3.3. Describe characters in a story (traits, motivations, feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events Grade 4 RL.4.3. Describe in depth a character, setting or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (character’s thoughts, words, actions) Grade 5 RL.5.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (how characters interact) Grade 6 RL.6.3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
CCSS Call? Students Must Develop “Communicative Competence” Teachers and SLPs have distinct, but complementary roles, working collaboratively to provide multiple types and levels of support. The SLP’s focus should be to support the success of students and to prepare them to access the curriculum, communicate to learn, and achieve academic goals… In other words, Focus on the Discourse Level of Language: teach students to put together words, phrases, and sentences to create conversations, speeches, messages, articles and books, so that they can experience both academic & social success throughout their education & careers.
Child sees the teacher Excited/compelled to tell the teacher about her weekend trip to the mall. Knows the teacher will be accepting of her Thinks that the teacher will like the story Believes that the teacher would be excited too Wants to tell the teacher and so the child says: “Me and Mommy went to the mall.” This statement is very vague and could cause a conversational breakdown between the girl and the teacher. Using the Six- Second-Stories ® technique, an effective start to the conversation would be: Me and Mommy The Mall Who Is Doing What Where When My Mom and I ate a giant sundae at the mall on Saturday. My mom lost her purse at the mall on Saturday. 23
WHAT DO GOOD COMMUNICATORS DO ? They C.A.R.E. (Communicate and Relate Effectively) by LISTENING in order to understand others’ ideas & feelings; and SPEAKING so that others can understand their own ideas & feelings They Make Eye Contact & Think with Their Eyes about their partner They Observe before Communicating to improve the timing of interaction They use positive Body Language & “read” their partner’s non-verbal cues They use Whole Body Listening to “synch” with their partner’s emotions They Kick-Off conversations by making statements that contain key facts, providing just the right amount of relevant information They ask appropriate questions of their partner in order to clarify confusing statements made by him/her
They answer questions posed by their partner in order to clarify content They Take Turns, alternating speaking & listening roles & balance air time They Stay on the Topic and signal Topic Changes appropriately They Act Interested by smiling, leaning forward & head nodding They Speak Clearly so their words can be easily understood by their partner They use a polite Tone of Voice to signal respect & friendliness They also use: Just the Right Distance (not too close & not too far away) Just the Right Speed (not too fast & not too slow) Just the Right Volume (not too soft & not too loud) They try to be “mindful” of their conversational partner, by “thinking socially”
WHAT DO GOOD COMMUNICATORS DO? They C.A.R.E. (Communicate and Relate Effectively) by READING in order to understand others’ ideas & feelings They decode, or “sound out,” the words they see They make sense of what each word, sentence & paragraph means They compare & contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by authors They generate alternative endings to plots, and identify the reason(s) for, and impact of, the alternatives They compare & contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures They are “mindful” of the author and the author’s intent
WHAT DO GOOD COMMUNICATORS DO? They C.A.R.E. (Communicate and Relate Effectively) by WRITING so that others can understand their ideas & feelings They write compositions that describe and explain familiar objects, events and experiences They write brief narratives based on their own experiences They describe the setting, characters, objects and events in detail They tell their story using a logical sequence of events They write using correct English spelling, grammar & punctuation They use good penmanship so that others can read their thoughts & feelings They are “mindful” of their reader and are capable of perspective-taking
At lunchtime one Monday in August, a few weeks after the school year started, a 4 th grade teacher, new to our faculty, asked me, “Gwynne, what did you do over the weekend?” I felt pleased that she expressed interest in getting to know me, because I was hoping that she would be open to the idea of co-teaching with me in her classroom. I realized that she didn’t know much about me yet, since we had just been introduced in a faculty meeting a few days earlier. So, I decided to tell her about myself in a way that would Kick-Off a brief conversation that might eventually lead to a mutually- satisfying, collegial relationship. I planned to tell her that I was married and to whom, and then describe one of the special interests we share as a married couple. I wanted to see if she liked this activity too, and then quickly find out what other things we might have in common for future reference. So I said, “My husband, Bob, and I went to the Idaho Ballet performance at the Morrison Center on Saturday night.” Exemplar of an Adult Six-Second-Story®
Six-Second-Stories® Conversation Connector Sheet Story Grammar Elements Where? Where did the character do this action/activity? When? When did the character do this action/activity? Who? Who is the story about? Name the character. Did What? What did the character do in the story? Story #1 Story #2 Story #3 “My husband, Bob, and I went to the Idaho Ballet performance at the Morrison Center on Saturday night.”
When? When did the character do this action/activity? Six-Second-Stories® Conversation Connector Sheet Story Grammar Elements Where? Where did the character do this action/activity? Who? Who is the story about? Name the character. Did What? What did the character do in the story? Kathyran to the playground last Saturday Ronald Morgan played baseball with his team in the park after school to the storelast nightwalkedJohn Story #1 Story #2 Story #3
Six-Second-Stories® Generate Topic Sentences 1)Review SGM Icons for The Character/The Setting/Actions and explain: As storytellers, we need to help our listeners/readers understand what we’re saying by telling them Who-Did What-Where and When. Tying our ideas together with important “sticky words” like first, after that, and then, and finally gives our listeners/readers a logical sequence so that they can follow our train of thought. 2) Introduce Six-Second-Stories® (S3) = Topic Sentence 3)Read The Wheels on the Bus and sing the matching song using gestures 4) Demonstrate how to adapt The Action Sequence Map and write a personal narrative 5) Teach how each of the three components fit together: 1) Write The Bus Driver’s Character Description (kids’ choices) 2) Brainstorm The Setting’s Description 3) Describe The Actions (using cohesive ties) 6) Assign Carryover Activity: Write a personal narrative, like we did together in class today, in response to the prompt “What did you do over the weekend?” 7)Provide more information on storytelling in this week’s Parent Letter---how Six-Second-Stories® can help students organize their oral storytelling & writing
From MindWing Concepts, It’s All About the Story! A Guide for Parents & Educators of Children with AS and HFA Making Connections! Perspective Taking, Theory of Mind and Pragmatics Using the Critical Thinking Triangle of the Story Grammar Marker (both by Moreau) and Facilitating Relationships! Six-Second-Stories and Other Social Communication Strategies: An Interactive Guide for Educators and Parents of Children with Social Learning Challenges (Moreau and McElhinney) From Think Social Social Thinking at Work: Why Should I Care? (Winner & Crooke) Social Thinking Worksheets for Tweens and Teens (Winner) Whole Body Listening Larry at Home! (Wilson & Sautter) Whole Body Listening Larry at School! (Sautter & Wilson) From Youth Light, How Do I Stand in Your Shoes? (DeBell) Teaching Children Empathy, The Social Emotion (Caselman) From Various Sources: Conversations: A Framework for Language Intervention amazon.comamazon.com Have You Filled a Bucket Today? A Guide to Daily Happiness for Kids and marketing.comwww.nelsonpublishing and marketing.com I Just Don’t Like the Sound of No! How about Maybe? amazon.comamazon.com My Mouth Is A Volcano! The Worst Day of My Life Ever! The Social Skills Picture Book
Generalization Programs: Parent-partnered therapy used at Gwynne McElhinney’s Lab for Social Intelligence Kimochis Think Social Publications The Go-To Guide for Social Skills Replacement Behaviors for Instruction Suggested Goals & Objectives Self-Regulation Strategies Research-Based Methods for Carry-Over and Generalization Progress Measurement Tools See Facilitating Relationships for more details re: SquiGuMs Wristbands Websites: Rocky Mountain Autism The P.L.A.Y. The Hanen Love and Tony Carol Future
I see communication as a huge umbrella that covers and affects all that goes on between human beings. Once a human being has arrived on this earth, communication is the largest single factor determining what kinds of relationships he makes with others and what happens to him in the world about him. How he manages his survival, how he develops intimacy, how productive he is, how he makes sense, how he connects with his own divinity--- all are largely dependent on his communication skills. ~Virginia Satir
Final Thoughts Integrating treatment to promote communicative competence (by teaching listening & speaking, reading & writing skills in a robust systematic, explicit approach) is a recommended practice. The methodology of Six-Second-Stories® is designed to facilitate conversational skills, relationship development & literacy progress. Involving others----educational staff, peers, and especially parents-- -is the key to the successful transfer of newly-acquired social competence out of therapy and into the Real World! As we improve our treatment of children with social learning weaknesses, we increase the odds that they will be better integrated into society, and become healthy, happy, contributing citizens. I hope that this new school year is a rewarding one for all of you. Best wishes for success in your pursuit of improved professional effectiveness!