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Surveying the American West with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey By Captain Albert E. Theberge NOAA Corps (ret.) NOAA Central Library.

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Presentation on theme: "Surveying the American West with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey By Captain Albert E. Theberge NOAA Corps (ret.) NOAA Central Library."— Presentation transcript:

1 Surveying the American West with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey By Captain Albert E. Theberge NOAA Corps (ret.) NOAA Central Library

2 Coast Survey Emblem ca. 1850

3 Ferdinand Hassler ( ) First Superintendent, Founder of the Coast Survey Alexander Dallas Bache ( ), Second and greatest of Superintendents Of Coast Survey

4 From Hassler’s modest beginnings on the eastern seaboard of the United States, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has built an invisible engineering wonder comprised of over 1.5 million survey points that serve as the framework for national mapping efforts, the basis of major civil engineering works, and ultimately even control private property lines.

5 How was this network built in the western United States?

6 The 39 th Parallel Survey, the first great arc of the Coast Survey

7 Geodetic Network, 1922 Vertical and Horizontal

8 Horizontal Control Network (Triangulation), 1937

9 Vertical Control Network (Leveling), 1936

10 THE WESTERN PIONEERS George Davidson William Eimbeck Augustus Rodgers

11 HOW THE SURVEYORS GOT THERE

12 Chief Signalman Jasper Bilby leading by example. Texas, 1903.

13 Packing up Kofa, Arizona 1934.

14 Going up, not down. East side Sierra Nevada, Owens Valley, California

15 Building party on triangulation, 49th Parallel. Cascades of Western Washington. 1924

16 Kofa, Arizona Astro Party, Arizona

17 Crossing the Verde River, Arizona

18 Reconnaissance Party, California. 1880’s.

19 1903 Lampasas, TX Building party along 98th Meridian Survey.

20 46th Parallel Survey, Montana. Fall, Packing out after the first big snowstorm.

21 Big Sur, California Smart mule. Stupid mule.

22 Northwest of Helena, Montana Picking the way through fallen timber.

23 How the h____ do we get up there? Mt. Gallatin, Montana, 1922.

24 Horse rolled down mountain. Checking the instruments. Montana, 1922.

25 Tough on horses. On the way to Station Stump, Montana

26 Headed down from triangulation station. Big Sur, California

27 Headed to astro station. Oregon, Mt. Hood in background.

28 Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico

29 Velocipedes. The favored mode of travel for leveling crews. Southern California desert

30 The first truck. North Dakota1913.

31 Where dogs rode before pickups. Gypsy the Watchdog. Idaho 1920.

32 Hope they checked the train schedule. Crossing Little Missouri River, North Dakota 1913.

33 1934

34 Crossing the Red River, Granite, Oklahoma To go where no truck has gone before. Utah 1939.

35 Kansas, 1934.

36 South Texas, Triangulation party on the move. Advent of trailers.

37 San Sabo, Texas Mojave Desert, California Truck troubles

38 Walker Pass, California Triangulation work. First geodetic field party use of helicopter in lower 48.

39 Salmon River, Idaho Custom- made Boat on the River of No Return.

40 TRIANGULATION – DETERMINING HORIZONTAL CONTROL POINTS

41 Reconnaissance on The 98th Meridian Survey. Minnesota John J. Hayford, Chief of Geodesy Division on 60-foot reconnaissance pole.

42 Reconnaissance on Mount Tushar, Utah; at old Eimbeck structure

43 Orienting

44 Placing a monument at the end of a base line. South Dakota, 1903.

45 Yolo Baseline, California 1881

46 Pasadena Baseline California.

47 1906, Washington, Olympic Peninsula 1914“It took men of uncommon nerve to do this work.”

48 Randall County, Texas

49 110 - Foot Tower, San Joaquin Valley, California Foot Tower.

50 Iowa cornfield, 1928.

51 Building a tower, New Mexico

52

53 Observing stand, Nebraska

54 Observing from Station Pico Blanco, Big Sur, California

55 Sometimes you don’t need a tower ft + Mt. Uncompaghre, Colorado

56 Montana 1922, Before and after lightning strike. Mt. Gallatin.

57 WHAT WERE THEY HOPING TO SEE?

58 Heliotrope reflecting sunlight. 1870’s. Sierra Nevada, California. 192 miles longest line observed.

59 Showing light, Idaho, Car headlight with battery.

60 Showing light, Idaho 1922.

61 Showing light, triangulation, North Dakota

62 During depression up to 10,000 men were employed on Coast Survey on short-term WPA Projects.

63 Kansas Historical Marker commemorating triangulation station Meades Ranch 1891.

64 Station Meades Ranch, Kansas. The origin point for North American Datum 1927.

65 ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, GRAVITATIONAL DEFLECTION FROM VERTICAL AND LAPLACE AZIMUTH

66 Astro work, Arizona

67 Astro work, Texas Bamberg Astronomic Transit And radio for listening for time signals.

68 Astro work, Nebraska sand hills

69 TRILATERATION AND THE TRANSCONTINENTAL TRAVERSE The basis for the modern North American Datum NAD83

70 Geodimeter Traverse, Mojave Desert, California

71 Geodimeter Traverse, Mojave Desert, California The Transcontinental Traverse was the most accurate large area survey ever acomplished and was the basis for establishing NAD 1983.

72 LEVELING A NATION: THE DETERMINATION OF SEA LEVEL

73 Leveling 1902, Oklahoma.

74 Leveling, Gunnison Valley, Colorado

75 Leveling 1902, Oklahoma.

76

77

78 Leveling innovation, ca

79 Leveling, Mt. Whitney, California

80 Leveling, Nevada

81 Leveling, Glen Canyon, Arizona

82 Placing Bench Marks for Leveling, Utah

83 Leveling Party, Whisky Pass, Colorado

84 Leveling, Arizona

85 Leveling, Salmon River, Idaho

86 Leveling, running the low line. Hoover Dam, Nevada

87 LIFE IN THE CAMPS

88 Laundry Day ca Somewhere out west.

89 A snowy day at the Observers camp on Lolo Pass, Montana 1934.

90 Level crew camp near Ruidoso, New Mexico

91 The opposite extreme

92 A little recreation at Bear Springs Camp, New Mexico.

93 Party Chief later wrote, “I was able to clean up my inventory….” 1935.

94 Touristy stuff in the Mojave Desert. Ca

95 Cooking breakfast, Olympic Peninsula, Washington Shave and haircut. Oregon 1916.

96 1934. At last! a Holiday Inn! Maybe the rooms even had showers.

97 A large triangulation crew at the beginning of trailer travel. Benjamin, Texas

98 Packing the horses Montana. The way it was….

99 Today, NOAA's National Geodetic Survey defines and manages the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS), which provides the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications.

100 NOAA History Resources

101 NOAA Central Library

102 Help Celebrate the 200 th Anniversary of the Coast Survey


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