Presentation on theme: "Surveying the American West with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey By Captain Albert E. Theberge NOAA Corps (ret.) NOAA Central Library."— Presentation transcript:
Surveying the American West with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey By Captain Albert E. Theberge NOAA Corps (ret.) NOAA Central Library
Coast Survey Emblem ca. 1850
Ferdinand Hassler ( ) First Superintendent, Founder of the Coast Survey Alexander Dallas Bache ( ), Second and greatest of Superintendents Of Coast Survey
From Hassler’s modest beginnings on the eastern seaboard of the United States, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has built an invisible engineering wonder comprised of over 1.5 million survey points that serve as the framework for national mapping efforts, the basis of major civil engineering works, and ultimately even control private property lines.
How was this network built in the western United States?
The 39 th Parallel Survey, the first great arc of the Coast Survey
Geodetic Network, 1922 Vertical and Horizontal
Horizontal Control Network (Triangulation), 1937
Vertical Control Network (Leveling), 1936
THE WESTERN PIONEERS George Davidson William Eimbeck Augustus Rodgers
HOW THE SURVEYORS GOT THERE
Chief Signalman Jasper Bilby leading by example. Texas, 1903.
Packing up Kofa, Arizona 1934.
Going up, not down. East side Sierra Nevada, Owens Valley, California
Building party on triangulation, 49th Parallel. Cascades of Western Washington. 1924
Kofa, Arizona Astro Party, Arizona
Crossing the Verde River, Arizona
Reconnaissance Party, California. 1880’s.
1903 Lampasas, TX Building party along 98th Meridian Survey.
46th Parallel Survey, Montana. Fall, Packing out after the first big snowstorm.
Big Sur, California Smart mule. Stupid mule.
Northwest of Helena, Montana Picking the way through fallen timber.
How the h____ do we get up there? Mt. Gallatin, Montana, 1922.
Horse rolled down mountain. Checking the instruments. Montana, 1922.
Tough on horses. On the way to Station Stump, Montana
Headed down from triangulation station. Big Sur, California
Headed to astro station. Oregon, Mt. Hood in background.
Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico
Velocipedes. The favored mode of travel for leveling crews. Southern California desert
The first truck. North Dakota1913.
Where dogs rode before pickups. Gypsy the Watchdog. Idaho 1920.
Hope they checked the train schedule. Crossing Little Missouri River, North Dakota 1913.
Crossing the Red River, Granite, Oklahoma To go where no truck has gone before. Utah 1939.
South Texas, Triangulation party on the move. Advent of trailers.
San Sabo, Texas Mojave Desert, California Truck troubles
Walker Pass, California Triangulation work. First geodetic field party use of helicopter in lower 48.
Salmon River, Idaho Custom- made Boat on the River of No Return.
TRIANGULATION – DETERMINING HORIZONTAL CONTROL POINTS
Reconnaissance on The 98th Meridian Survey. Minnesota John J. Hayford, Chief of Geodesy Division on 60-foot reconnaissance pole.
Reconnaissance on Mount Tushar, Utah; at old Eimbeck structure
Placing a monument at the end of a base line. South Dakota, 1903.
Yolo Baseline, California 1881
Pasadena Baseline California.
1906, Washington, Olympic Peninsula 1914“It took men of uncommon nerve to do this work.”
Randall County, Texas
110 - Foot Tower, San Joaquin Valley, California Foot Tower.
Iowa cornfield, 1928.
Building a tower, New Mexico
Observing stand, Nebraska
Observing from Station Pico Blanco, Big Sur, California
Sometimes you don’t need a tower ft + Mt. Uncompaghre, Colorado
Montana 1922, Before and after lightning strike. Mt. Gallatin.
WHAT WERE THEY HOPING TO SEE?
Heliotrope reflecting sunlight. 1870’s. Sierra Nevada, California. 192 miles longest line observed.
Showing light, Idaho, Car headlight with battery.
Showing light, Idaho 1922.
Showing light, triangulation, North Dakota
During depression up to 10,000 men were employed on Coast Survey on short-term WPA Projects.
Kansas Historical Marker commemorating triangulation station Meades Ranch 1891.
Station Meades Ranch, Kansas. The origin point for North American Datum 1927.
ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, GRAVITATIONAL DEFLECTION FROM VERTICAL AND LAPLACE AZIMUTH
Astro work, Arizona
Astro work, Texas Bamberg Astronomic Transit And radio for listening for time signals.
Astro work, Nebraska sand hills
TRILATERATION AND THE TRANSCONTINENTAL TRAVERSE The basis for the modern North American Datum NAD83
Geodimeter Traverse, Mojave Desert, California
Geodimeter Traverse, Mojave Desert, California The Transcontinental Traverse was the most accurate large area survey ever acomplished and was the basis for establishing NAD 1983.
LEVELING A NATION: THE DETERMINATION OF SEA LEVEL
Leveling 1902, Oklahoma.
Leveling, Gunnison Valley, Colorado
Leveling 1902, Oklahoma.
Leveling innovation, ca
Leveling, Mt. Whitney, California
Leveling, Glen Canyon, Arizona
Placing Bench Marks for Leveling, Utah
Leveling Party, Whisky Pass, Colorado
Leveling, Salmon River, Idaho
Leveling, running the low line. Hoover Dam, Nevada
LIFE IN THE CAMPS
Laundry Day ca Somewhere out west.
A snowy day at the Observers camp on Lolo Pass, Montana 1934.
Level crew camp near Ruidoso, New Mexico
The opposite extreme
A little recreation at Bear Springs Camp, New Mexico.
Party Chief later wrote, “I was able to clean up my inventory….” 1935.
Touristy stuff in the Mojave Desert. Ca
Cooking breakfast, Olympic Peninsula, Washington Shave and haircut. Oregon 1916.
1934. At last! a Holiday Inn! Maybe the rooms even had showers.
A large triangulation crew at the beginning of trailer travel. Benjamin, Texas
Packing the horses Montana. The way it was….
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