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1.Read the following online: 2.SRAC pub: 2403 (crawfish) SRAC 0483 Freshwater Prawns: Biology and Life History SRAC.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Read the following online: 2.SRAC pub: 2403 (crawfish) SRAC 0483 Freshwater Prawns: Biology and Life History SRAC."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.Read the following online: 2.SRAC pub: 2403 (crawfish) SRAC 0483 Freshwater Prawns: Biology and Life History SRAC 0484 Pond Production of the Freshwater Prawn in Temperate Climates SRAC 4830 Economics of Freshwater Prawn Farming in the United States 3. Hybrid striped bass: SRAC 0300 Hybrid Striped Bass: Biology and Life History SRAC 0301 Hybrid Striped Bass: Hatchery Phase SRAC 0302 Hybrid Striped Bass: Fingerling Production in Ponds SRAC 0303 Hybrid Striped Bass: Pond Production of Foodfish 4.Trout: SRAC 0220 Trout Production: Handling Eggs and Fry

2 Trout and Salmon Culture

3 Salmonid Life Cycle

4 Commonly Cultured Trout Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Brown TroutBrown Trout Salmo trutta Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis

5 Trout Culture

6 Stages of Culture - Trout Broodstock Spawning Egg incubation Fry culture Fingerling production Growout

7 Broodstock Females are 2 to 3 years old –Can be used for more than one year but may have decreased egg quality and quantity Males are 2 to 3 years old –Can be used several times in one spawning season but not for more than one year

8 Dry Spawning

9 Eggs “Green eggs” = eggs from 48 hours post- spawn to eyed stage Can be shipped in plastic eggs at 38°F Ship eggs wrapped in damp cheese cloth Chill with ice and let water drip onto eggs

10 Egg Incubation

11 Trout – Sac Fry = Alevins

12 Size Grading

13 Trout Fingerling Production

14 Trout Growout RacewaysRaceways PondsPonds CagesCages Tri-Omega Trout Farm, Pisgah National Forest in Transylvania, NC

15 Trout Growout RacewaysRaceways PondsPonds CagesCages Tri-Omega Trout Farm, Pisgah National Forest in Transylvania, NC

16 Trout Raceways in NC

17 Trout Raceways In Idaho

18 Trout Pond Culture

19 Trout Tank Culture

20 Marketing Trout Fee fishing Live hauling Filet products

21 Fee Fishing

22 Live Hauling

23 Fillet Products

24 Salmon Culture

25 There are six species of salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The largest salmon, the Chinook, can reach over 6 feet in length and weighs over 100 pounds.

26 Atlantic Salmon stock enhancement - collection of wild broodstock

27 In the fall, salmon deposit eggs in the gravel of flowing streams. Eggs hatch in the spring, and the alevin grow quickly. Later, the fingerlings continue to grow toward maturity in the streams near their birthplace. When they become strong enough to swim in rushing currents, and quick enough to escape their enemies, the salmon begin migrating to the sea. Salmon can grow to be over 100 pounds as they feast in the nutrient- rich waters of the ocean. When full grown, the beautiful, silvery fish begin their migration back to the waters of their birth. As they get closer to their spawning grounds, salmon change in their appearance. Some salmon travel over 1000 miles to lay their eggs. After spawning (laying eggs), the salmon die sometimes inches from where they were hatched! Amazing instincts! The Salmon Life Cycle

28 Commonly Cultured Salmon Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

29 Atlantic salmon hatchery

30 Stages of Salmon Culture Spawning Egg incubation Fry culture Fingerling production Growout

31 Salmon Egg Incubation

32 Sac Fry Culture

33 Tiny alevin grow quickly after being hatched. When they are as long as your fingernail, they are called fry, and look like real fish! When they get to be about as long as your longest finger, they are given a new name -- smolt. As the smolt grow, they eventually begin their migration to the ocean. Alevin Smolt Ocean Bound!

34 Salmon Fingerling Production


36 Salmon Growout ExtensiveExtensive Net PensNet Pens Hills Island Salmon Farm, Canada

37 Salmon - Extensive Culture Culture fingerlings in tanks Stock fingerlings (smolts) into native streams Fish will migrate to the ocean and undergo smoltification Fish will live in open ocean for approximately 3 years Fish will return to stream they were planted (chloramine-T, Seattle) Can be harvested when they return and before they die Approximately 1 in 1000 return

38 Salmon - Net Pen Culture


40 Salmon Net Pens Stocking density 8 – 14 kg/m 3, but 75 kg/m 3 possible!Stocking density 8 – 14 kg/m 3, but 75 kg/m 3 possible! Feeding by hand, or electronic (SONAR)Feeding by hand, or electronic (SONAR) Atlantic salmon ~80% of net pens in the Pacific Northwest and Canada.Atlantic salmon ~80% of net pens in the Pacific Northwest and Canada. Why Atlantic salmon in Pacific????Why Atlantic salmon in Pacific???? –Better FCR, higher survival, better dressout %. Escapees of Atlantic salmon into Pacific Ocean problem?Escapees of Atlantic salmon into Pacific Ocean problem? –Not yet! Escapees experience high mortality, poor high mortality, poor reproduction, do not spawn reproduction, do not spawn with Pacific salmon with Pacific salmon

41 Salmon Processing

42 Marketing Fillets


44 Total production 23,067,973 metric tons & valued at US $ 31,565,104,100 in 2000 FILTER FEEDING CYPRINIDS PELLET FEEDING CYPRINIDS OTHER FRESHWATER FISHES SALMONIDS TILAPIA MARINE FISHES CATFISHES MILKFISH EELS Figure 1.2.10 Total finfish aquaculture production by major species groups in 2000 (values expressed as % by weight) CATFISH

45 Credits Pictures and diagrams found in this photo essay are courtesy of: The Alaskan Department of Fish and Game The Washington Department of Fish and Game The Army Corps of Engineers The US National Marine Fisheries

46 These salmon are on their way to the ocean where they may live for 1-5 years, depending on the species, before returning to the rivers and streams to spawn (lay eggs). Only one salmon out of a thousand salmon survives to return to the river to spawn. What are some possible reasons why such a small percentage of salmon actually live long enough to lay eggs?

47 Going home! These salmon are on their way back to the waters of their birth. Scientists do not know how salmon find the exact location of their birthplace, but their sense of smell (and the chemical signature of the waters) is an important cue. Along the way are many hazards – some more hungry than others!

48 Replenishing Nutrients When salmon die after spawning, they provide nutrients to plants and animals near the rivers in which they swam. It has been found that 20 % of the nitrogen (an important element for all living things) in evergreen trees that grow next to salmon spawning waters in Alaska actually was carried upstream with salmon. These nutrients are essentially transported from the ocean to the headwaters by the salmon.

49 By Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture Auburn University, Alabama, USA Rainbow Trout culture

50 Distribution 1. Native – Western U. S., western Canada, Alaska and Western Pacific. 2. Introduced – Eastern U. S. and most of the temperate climate world. Oncorynchus mykiss

51 Rainbow trout live their entire life cycle in fresh water Steelhead are a rainbow trout that lives most of its life in the ocean but returns to fresh water to spawn. Male Female

52 Food Habits – insects, crustaceans and fish Water Quality 1. Dissolved oxygen – above 5 mg/l 2. Needs water of good quality Sexual maturity – 2 to 3 years old

53 Should not be above 22 0 C and ideal for good growth is 13 to 18 0 C Water temperature

54 Rainbow trout are a popular sport fish. The world record taken by rod and reel is 19.1 kg

55 Reproduction 1. Nature - Spawns in the Spring and needs water below 12 0 C for 6 months to produce good quality eggs. Females spawn eggs over gravel beds in stream riffle areas.

56 Captivity – Eggs are stripped from ripe females and sperm is stripped from males and mixed in a bowl. Reproduction

57 Eggs are artificially incubated and will hatch in 50 days at 7 0 C and 20 days at 15 0 C. Water upwelling incubator

58 Recently Hatched Trout Fry ( Alevins )

59 Fry are large when they begin to swim and can be fed with powdered formulated diets at first feeding.

60 Culture 1.Most trout are raised in raceways with abundant flowing water. Some trout are raised in earthen ponds with water exchange and in cages. 2. The environment, stocking density, fish growth and feeding rate are highly controlled. 3. Trout culture is divided into 3 types depending on the trout harvested. a. pink pan-sized b. white pan-sized c. salmon trout; larger than 1 kg

61 Carotenoid pigments Pink fleshed trout

62 Earthen raceways and feeding trout in Chile. Notice netting to protect against birds.

63 Concrete raceways and feeding trout in Brazil

64 Idaho is the leading producer of trout in the U. S.. Most trout are farmed along the Snake River valley.

65 Springs flowing into the Snake River in Idaho

66 Earthen Raceways with demand feeders in Idaho. Trout are fed with a nutritionally complete, high protein, floating diet. Trout triggering a demand feeder

67 Concrete raceways along the Snake River in Idaho Water is reoxygenated as it falls from higher to lower tanks

68 Large Trout Raceway Farm in Idaho

69 Trout Raceways in Idaho

70 Trout are graded to maintain uniform size in a raceway

71 Trout harvest with lift basket in North Carolina Trout harvest in Idaho with a fish pump.

72 Sludge Removal from a Raceway Effluent Settling Tank

73 Rainbow trout are often raised in cages to weights larger than 1 kg

74 1.Whole, gutted 2.fillets Market Products Golden variety of rainbow trout

75 World Production of Rainbow Trout in 1999: 418,654 metric tons Leading Producers in 2001: 1. France – 47,500,000 kg 2. Norway – 60,000,000 kg ( all large trout, >1 kg ) 3. Italy – 44,000,000 kg 4. Denmark – 37,000,000 kg

76 U.S. annual production: 56.9 million lbs (2001) 9 % of total finfish production in U. S. 1.Idaho39,500,0000.87 2. N. Carolina 5,550,0001.10 3.Washington 2,590,0001.00 4.California 2,500,000 2.05 5.Pennsylvania 1,640,0002.50 StateProduction, lbPrice/lb

77 Advantages 1. Best cold water fish available 2. Grows well 3. Ease of reproduction and fingerling production 4. Good quality flesh 5. Easy to harvest 6. Stock at high densities 7. Accepts pelleted diets Disadvantages 1. Not tolerant of warm water temperatures 2. Not resistant to poor water quality and disease 3. Feeds high on the food chain


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