Presentation on theme: "Read the following online: SRAC pub: 2403 (crawfish)"— Presentation transcript:
1Read the following online:SRAC pub: 2403 (crawfish)SRAC 0483 Freshwater Prawns: Biology and Life HistorySRAC 0484 Pond Production of the Freshwater Prawn in Temperate ClimatesSRAC 4830 Economics of Freshwater Prawn Farming in the United States3. Hybrid striped bass:SRAC 0300 Hybrid Striped Bass: Biology and Life HistorySRAC 0301 Hybrid Striped Bass: Hatchery PhaseSRAC 0302 Hybrid Striped Bass: Fingerling Production in PondsSRAC 0303 Hybrid Striped Bass: Pond Production of FoodfishTrout:SRAC 0220 Trout Production: Handling Eggs and Fry
6Stages of Culture - Trout BroodstockSpawningEgg incubationFry cultureFingerling productionGrowout
7Broodstock Females are 2 to 3 years old Males are 2 to 3 years old Can be used for more than one year but may have decreased egg quality and quantityMales are 2 to 3 years oldCan be used several times in one spawning season but not for more than one year
25There are six species of salmon in the Pacific Northwest There are six species of salmon in the Pacific Northwest. The largest salmon, the Chinook, can reach over 6 feet in length and weighs over 100 pounds.
26Atlantic Salmon stock enhancement - collection of wild broodstock
27The SalmonLife CycleIn the fall, salmon deposit eggs in the gravel of flowing streams.After spawning (laying eggs), the salmon die sometimes inches from where they were hatched! Amazing instincts!Eggs hatch in the spring, and the alevin grow quickly. Later, the fingerlings continue to grow toward maturity in the streams near their birthplace.As they get closer to their spawning grounds, salmon change in their appearance. Some salmon travel over 1000 miles to lay their eggs.Salmon can grow to be over 100 pounds as they feast in the nutrient- rich waters of the ocean. When full grown, the beautiful, silvery fish begin their migration back to the waters of their birth.When they become strong enough to swim in rushing currents, and quick enough to escape their enemies, the salmon begin migrating to the sea.
33AlevinTiny alevin grow quickly after being hatched. When they are as long as your fingernail, they are called fry, and look like real fish! When they get to be about as long as your longest finger, they are given a new name -- smolt. As the smolt grow, they eventually begin their migration to the ocean.SmoltOcean Bound!
36Salmon GrowoutHills Island Salmon Farm, CanadaExtensiveNet Pens
37Salmon - Extensive Culture Culture fingerlings in tanksStock fingerlings (smolts) into native streamsFish will migrate to the ocean and undergo smoltificationFish will live in open ocean for approximately 3 yearsFish will return to stream they were planted (chloramine-T, Seattle)Can be harvested when they return and before they dieApproximately 1 in 1000 return
40Salmon Net Pens Stocking density 8 – 14 kg/m3, but 75 kg/m3 possible! Feeding by hand, or electronic (SONAR)Atlantic salmon ~80% of net pens in the Pacific Northwest and Canada.Why Atlantic salmon in Pacific????Better FCR, higher survival, better dressout %.Escapees of Atlantic salmon into Pacific Ocean problem?Not yet! Escapees experiencehigh mortality, poorreproduction, do not spawnwith Pacific salmon
44Figure Total finfish aquaculture production by major species groups in 2000 (values expressed as % by weight)CATFISHESTotal production 23,067,973 metric tons & valued at US $ 31,565,104,100 in 2000FILTER FEEDING CYPRINIDSMARINE FISHESEELSMILKFISHSALMONIDSCATFISHTILAPIAOTHERFRESHWATER FISHESPELLET FEEDING CYPRINIDS
45Pictures and diagrams found in this photo essay are courtesy of: CreditsPictures and diagrams found in thisphoto essay are courtesy of:The Alaskan Department of Fish and GameThe Washington Department of Fish and GameThe Army Corps of EngineersThe US National Marine Fisheries
46These salmon are on their way to the ocean where they may live for 1-5 years, depending on the species, before returning to the rivers and streams to spawn (lay eggs). Only one salmon out of a thousand salmon survives to return to the river to spawn. What are some possible reasons why such a small percentage of salmon actually live long enough to lay eggs?
47Along the way are many hazards – some more hungry than others! Going home!These salmon are on their way back to the waters of their birth. Scientists do not know how salmon find the exact location of their birthplace, but their sense of smell (and the chemical signature of the waters) is an important cue.Along the way are many hazards – some more hungry than others!
48Replenishing Nutrients When salmon die after spawning, they provide nutrients to plants and animals near the rivers in which they swam. It has been found that 20 % of the nitrogen (an important element for all living things) in evergreen trees that grow next to salmon spawning waters in Alaska actually was carried upstream with salmon. These nutrients are essentially transported from the ocean to the headwaters by the salmon.
49Rainbow Trout culture By Leonard Lovshin Rainbow Trout culture by Leonard L. Lovshin, Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, ALabamaByLeonard LovshinDepartment of Fisheries and Allied AquacultureAuburn University, Alabama, USA
50Oncorynchus mykiss Distribution 1. Native – Western U. S., western Canada, Alaska and Western Pacific.2. Introduced – Eastern U. S. and most of the temperateclimate world.Oncorynchus mykissRainbow trout, Oncorynchus mykiss, is native to the Western continental United States west of the Rocky Mountains, western Canada, Alaska and the Western Pacific. Presently, the rainbow trout is distributed throughout the United states, Europe, South America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
51Rainbow trout live their entire life cycle in fresh water Steelhead are a rainbow trout that lives most of its life in the ocean but returns to fresh water to spawn.Rainbow trout live their entire life cycle in freshwater. However, a strain of rainbow trout called a “ steelhead” breeds in freshwater and the young migrate to the ocean to feed and reach adulthood before returning to freshwater to spawn.FemaleMale
52Food Habits – insects, crustaceans and fish Water Quality1. Dissolved oxygen – above 5 mg/l2. Needs water of good qualitySexual maturity – 2 to 3 years oldRainbow trout are carnivorous, living on insects, crustaceans and other fish. They require clean, high quality water with dissolved oxygen above 5 mg/l. Rainbow trout reach sexual maturity in 2 to 3 years.
53Should not be above 220C and ideal for good growth is 13 to 180C Water temperatureShould not be above 220C and ideal for good growth is 13 to 180CRainbow trout are a cold water fish and live in water that does not rise above 270 C ( 810 F ). Ideal water temperatures for growth are 13 to 180 C ( 55 to 650 F ) and for reproduction are 8 to 120 C ( 46 to 520 F ).
54Rainbow trout are a popular sport fish Rainbow trout are a popular sport fish. The world record taken by rod and reel is 19.1 kgRainbow trout are a popular sport fish, found in fast flowing stream and rivers and large deep lakes and reservoirs with water temperatures cold enough to sustain growth. Rainbow trout have been widely stocked world-wide to improve sport fishing in waters without native rainbow trout populations.
551. Nature - Spawns in the Spring and needs Reproduction1. Nature - Spawns in the Spring and needswater below 120C for 6 months to produce good quality eggs.Females spawn eggs over gravel beds in stream riffle areas.Rainbow trout normally spawn in the Spring, although some populations will spawn in the Fall. Water temperature below 120C ( 540C ) for 6 months for good egg development. Rainbow trout cultured at high altitude in regions with a tropical climate often are unable to reproduce because water temperature remains too high for egg development. Rainbow trout seek gravel beds in stream riffle areas to spawn. The female sweeps a shallow nest in the gravel. The female will deposit her eggs in the nest as males release their sperm to fertilize the eggs. The female covers the eggs with gravel before she leaves the nest area. No parental care is provided to the eggs or fry. The eggs will hatch in 20 to 50 days depending on water temperature. The recently hatched yolk-sac fry or alevins remain in the nest for 10 to 20 days obtaining nourishment from the yolk sac. When the yolk-sac is absorbed, the fry become free swimming and begin seeking food. Some trout, mainly females, are able to spawn a second season.
56ReproductionCaptivity – Eggs are stripped from ripe females and sperm is stripped from males and mixed in a bowl.Brood fish are raised in captivity. Eggs are manually stripped into a container and mixed with sperm stripped from several males. Water is added to the eggs and sperm to allow the sperm to fertilize the eggs. The eggs are placed in incubators until hatch. Rainbow trout can be manipulated to spawn year-round in captivity by photoperiod adjustment so eggs are available throughout the year.
57Water upwelling incubator Eggs are artificially incubated and will hatch in 50 days at 70C and 20 days at 150C.Eggs are gently agitated in the incubator to assure that oxygen reaches all the eggs. Eggs will hatch in 50 days at 70C ( 450F ) and 20 days at 150C ( 590F ).
58Recently Hatched Trout Fry ( Alevins ) Yolk-sac fry are too heavy to swim and remain on the bottom of the incubator or nursery trough. The fry gain nutrition from their yolk sac. When the yolk-sac is almost absorbed, the fry become free swimming and begin looking for external sources of food.
59Fry will swim to the water surface seeking food Fry will swim to the water surface seeking food. At this time, commercially formulated powdered diets are fed to the fry. Fry are grown indoors for 2 to 3 weeks to provide protection and increase survival.Fry are large when they begin to swim and can be fed with powdered formulated diets at first feeding.
60CultureMost trout are raised in raceways with abundant flowing water. Some trout are raised in earthen ponds with water exchange and in cages.2. The environment, stocking density, fish growth and feeding rate are highly controlled.3. Trout culture is divided into 3 types depending on thetrout harvested.a. pink pan-sizedb. white pan-sizedc. salmon trout; larger than 1 kg
62Earthen raceways and feeding trout in Chile Earthen raceways and feeding trout in Chile. Notice netting to protect against birds.Most trout are raised in earthen or concrete raceways with abundant flowing water. Water volume is usually exchanged 3 to 8 times an hour. Water flows in the top end of the raceway and flows out the bottom end, flushing organic wastes from the raceway to maintain a clean, well oxygenated environment. Stocking density depends on water temperature and flow rate. Typical rearing densities are 1.8 kg of trout/liter/min water flow ( 15 lb/gallon/min ).
63Concrete raceways and feeding trout in Brazil Concrete raceways are easier to clean and maintain but more costly to build compared to earthen raceways. The environment, stocking density, fish growth and feeding rate are highly controlled in raceways. The transparent water allows to trout farmer to observe his fish and notice unusual feeding and swimming behavior.
64Idaho is the leading producer of trout in the U. S Idaho is the leading producer of trout in the U. S.. Most trout are farmed along the Snake River valley.Idaho is the leading producer of trout in the United State. Most trout are farmed along the Snake River valley.
65Springs flowing into the Snake River in Idaho Abundant sources of spring water flow from the sides of the Snake River valley. The spring water can be directed through the raceways by gravity flow. The spring water maintains a constant 14.50C ( 580F ) temperature year-round.
66Trout triggering a demand feeder Earthen Raceways with demand feeders in Idaho. Trout are fed with a nutritionally complete, high protein, floating diet.Trout are fed a nutritionally complete floating diet manually or by demand or automatic feeders. Demand feeders are triggered by the trout to release feed while an automatic feeder is programmed to release a given amount of feed at determined intervals. Trout are permitted to eat up to a maximum daily ration determined by water temperature and their body weight.Trout triggering a demand feeder
67Concrete raceways along the Snake River in Idaho Water can be used once or numerous times before release back into the environment. Water can be dropped from raceway to raceway where topography permits. Dropping the water 30 to 60 cm ( 12 to 24 inches ) in a thin layer will reoxygenate the water so it can be reused to grow more trout in lower raceways.Water is reoxygenated as it falls from higher to lower tanks
68Large Trout Raceway Farm in Idaho This large trout farm in Idaho is fully automated. Silos store trout feed that is distributed automatically to demand feeders.
69Trout Raceways in Idaho Water vapor rises from these raceways in Idaho on a cold winter day because the water temperature is warmer that the surrounding air.
70Trout are graded to maintain uniform size in a raceway Trout are easily graded to size and sampled in rectangular concrete raceways with a form fitted crowding bar fence. Small trout can swim through the bars and remain in the raceway, while larger trout are retained and transferred to another raceway for further growth or marketed. Separating large and small trout during the growout period permits the small trout more access to the feed and a chance to grow faster.
71Trout harvest in Idaho with a fish pump. Trout reach 400 to 500 g ( 1 lb ) inTrout harvest with lift basket in North Carolina
72Sludge Removal from a Raceway Effluent Settling Tank
73Rainbow trout are often raised in cages to weights larger than 1 kg
74Market ProductsWhole, guttedfilletsGolden variety of rainbow trout
754. Denmark – 37,000,000 kg World Production of Rainbow Trout in 1999: 418,654 metric tonsLeading Producers in 2001:1. France – 47,500,000 kg2. Norway – 60,000,000 kg ( all large trout, >1 kg )3. Italy – 44,000,000 kg4. Denmark – 37,000,000 kg
769 % of total finfish production in U. S. U.S. annual production: million lbs (2001)9 % of total finfish production in U. S.State Production, lb Price/lbIdaho 39,500,N. Carolina 5,550,Washington 2,590,California 2,500,Pennsylvania 1,640,
771. Best cold water fish available Advantages1. Best cold water fish available2. Grows well3. Ease of reproduction and fingerling production4. Good quality flesh5. Easy to harvest6. Stock at high densities7. Accepts pelleted dietsDisadvantages1. Not tolerant of warm water temperatures2. Not resistant to poor water quality and disease3. Feeds high on the food chain