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Zebra Chip in North America a new challenge? Phillip Nolte Phillip Nolte Extension Seed Potato Specialist University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID UNECE Seed.

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Presentation on theme: "Zebra Chip in North America a new challenge? Phillip Nolte Phillip Nolte Extension Seed Potato Specialist University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID UNECE Seed."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Zebra Chip in North America a new challenge? Phillip Nolte Phillip Nolte Extension Seed Potato Specialist University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID UNECE Seed Potato Meeting, May 31, 2012, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

3 Dr. Neil Gudmestad, NDSU Dr. Neil Gudmestad, NDSU Dr. Andy Jensen, WPC, OPC, IPC Photo and source credit ZC in North America

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5  “Zebra Complex” or “ZC”  Not just chips (crisps)  Fries  Fresh  Seed?

6 Disease Diagnosis ZC in North America

7 ZC Symptom variability  Foliar symptoms similar to purple top wilt syndrome and include:  Leaf curl  Leaf chlorosis and scorching  Limited purpling of top leaves  Twisted stems

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9 ZC Symptom variability  Symptoms continued:  Swollen nodes  Aerial tubers  Vascular discoloration and wilt  Plant death

10 Recent History ZC in North America

11 North Dakota Texas Oklahoma New Mexico Colorado Arizona Kansas Arkansas Wyoming South Dakota Nebraska Minnesota Iowa Montana Idaho Utah Nevada California Washington Missouri Louisiana..... Oregon. Locations where ZC defect has been found in USA

12 Seed Production 30,000 A Seed Production 30,000 A SW 21,000 A SW SE 207,000 A SE SC 75,000 A SC

13 ZC Timeline for PNW  September- Columbia Basin of WA/OR  Idaho: Late September/Early October  Norkotah sample from packing shed with symptoms. Found by ISDA inspector. Confirmed ZC.  Leavings in field sampled confirmed ZC. (Jerome Co)  Additional samples found in research plots in Kimberly (Twin Falls county) – 0 to 1.8%  Samples from commercial fields (Twin Falls county)

14  Lots of positives at low incidence  Most in Central ID  Much lower in West  Nothing from East as yet  Many potatoes still in storage Current situation ZC in Idaho

15 WEST 21,000 A WEST SE 207,000 A SE CENTRAL 75,000 A CENTRAL ?

16 Tuber Symptoms ZC in North America

17 Tuber Symptoms G. Secor

18 Net Necrosis (PLRV) ZC

19 Defect of Chips / Crisps  Disease causes browning of chips processed from affected potatoes  ZC leads to load and field rejections  Initially called “Texas defect” and then “Zebra Chip” due to alternating light and dark streaks in finished product  Discoloration ranges from mild to severe

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21 Causal Agent ZC in North America

22  “ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum ” (bacterium)  Not culturable  Spread by potato psyllid Causal Agent

23 Psyllid Vector ZC in North America

24 The Vector: Tomato-Potato Psyllid

25  Psyllid behavior and capabilities?  Stored potatoes?  Curiosity or long term scourge?  Seed  ??? Much is unknown ZC in Idaho

26  ZC has not been reported in any seed production area of Canada or USA  Disease appears to be independent of seed source  ZC frequently kills eyes, or produces very weak plant  Studies underway to determine importance of seed borne inoculum  ato-tomato psyllid native to USA west  Host range – prefers Solanaceae: potato, tomato, pepper, nightshades, but can also develop on many other plants  Occurs annually in WA, OR, and ID  May migrate? but may overwinter here?  Can be very difficult to detect in the field Importance of infected seed?

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