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Pediatric Psychiatric Diagnosis And Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology.

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Presentation on theme: "Pediatric Psychiatric Diagnosis And Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pediatric Psychiatric Diagnosis And Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology

2 Common Childhood Psychiatric Disorders AnxietyDepressionADHD Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

3 Therapeutic Relationship A significant predictors of improvement and satisfaction in treatment is the perception of the relationship of trust between the child, parent, and provider. A significant predictors of improvement and satisfaction in treatment is the perception of the relationship of trust between the child, parent, and provider.

4 Treatment Partnership It is essential to have the ability to enter the clients “private world” and understand their thoughts and feelings without judging these (Rogers, 1957). It is essential to have the ability to enter the clients “private world” and understand their thoughts and feelings without judging these (Rogers, 1957).

5 Prescribing for Children Consideration must be given to factors that will influence medication compliance. Consideration must be given to factors that will influence medication compliance. Ethical issues: Off-label prescribing, Informed consent and developmentally sensitive assent for medication for medication use. Ethical issues: Off-label prescribing, Informed consent and developmentally sensitive assent for medication for medication use.

6 FDA Approval  Resource for Pediatric FDA medication approval.

7 Trends 1 in 10 children and adolescents have a mental illness severe enough to cause impairment. 1 in 10 children and adolescents have a mental illness severe enough to cause impairment. Only 1 in 5 of these children receives any treatment. Only 1 in 5 of these children receives any treatment. For nearly half of the children who do receive services, the school was the only provider. For nearly half of the children who do receive services, the school was the only provider.

8 Suicide For nearly half of the children who do receive services, the school was the only provider. For nearly half of the children who do receive services, the school was the only provider. Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among children ages 10 – 19 Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among children ages 10 – 19 Acute psychiatric illness is the single most common and dangerous trigger for suicide. Acute psychiatric illness is the single most common and dangerous trigger for suicide. 90% of youth who died by suicide were suffering from depression or another diagnosable and treatable mental illness at the time of death. 90% of youth who died by suicide were suffering from depression or another diagnosable and treatable mental illness at the time of death. Nearly as many teens die from suicide as all natural causes combined. Nearly as many teens die from suicide as all natural causes combined. Another 520,000 children require medical services each year as a result of suicide attempts. Another 520,000 children require medical services each year as a result of suicide attempts.

9 Anxiety Anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood psychiatric disorders affecting 1 in 5 children and adolescents (AACAP Practice Parameters: Anxiety, 1997). Anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood psychiatric disorders affecting 1 in 5 children and adolescents (AACAP Practice Parameters: Anxiety, 1997).

10 Common Anxiety-Related Disorders of Childhood Separation Disorders Separation Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Panic Disorder Social Phobia Social Phobia Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Post Traumatic Disorder Post Traumatic Disorder

11 Antidepressant-Anxiety Psychopharmacology Treatments Fluoxetine (Prozac) Fluvoxamine (Luvox) Escitalopram) (Lexapro) Citalopram (Celexa) Venlafaxine (Effexor) Sertraline (Zoloft) Duloxetine (Cymbalta) Clomipramine (Anafranil)

12 Anxiety Psychopharmacology Augmentation for anxiety Add an Atypical Antipsychotic (Seroquel) sleep and anxiety Add an Atypical Antipsychotic (Seroquel) sleep and anxiety Add Trazodone (sleep and acute anxiety) Add Trazodone (sleep and acute anxiety) Add Atarax (sleep and anxiety) Add Atarax (sleep and anxiety) Mirtazapine (Remeron) sleep Mirtazapine (Remeron) sleep Anxiolytics Anxiolytics Buspirone Buspirone Clonazepam Clonazepam

13 Duration of Psychopharmacology Treatment 9-18 months after treatment after symptoms resolve of stabilize, the gradual taper off medication months after treatment after symptoms resolve of stabilize, the gradual taper off medication. Rapid discontinuation may lead to Discontinuation Syndrome Rapid discontinuation may lead to Discontinuation Syndrome

14 Childhood Depression Mood characteristically irritable and sad: Experienced as angry and oppositional Mood characteristically irritable and sad: Experienced as angry and oppositional Mood reactivity; Brightens temporarily to an event Mood reactivity; Brightens temporarily to an event Neurovegative signs; Sleep, Energy, Motor Neurovegative signs; Sleep, Energy, Motor Somatic complaints Somatic complaints Rejection sensitivity Rejection sensitivity

15 Co-Morbidities 60% co-morbid with ADHD (onset age 4) 60% co-morbid with ADHD (onset age 4) 30-75% co-morbid with anxiety disorders (onset age 6) 30-75% co-morbid with anxiety disorders (onset age 6) 20-80% co-morbid with oppositional/conduct disorder (onset age 7-8) 20-80% co-morbid with oppositional/conduct disorder (onset age 7-8) Dysthymia/ Depression (onset age 8) Dysthymia/ Depression (onset age 8)

16 Course of Major Depression 40% recover in 1% ; in 2 years 40% recover in 1% ; in 2 years Most experience residual symptoms Most experience residual symptoms 72% experience recurrent episodes within 5 years 72% experience recurrent episodes within 5 years (Spencer, 2004)

17 Depression Psychopharmacological First Line Treatments Fluoxetine (Prozac) Fluoxetine (Prozac) Sertraline (Zoloft) Sertraline (Zoloft) Escitalopram) (Lexapro) Escitalopram) (Lexapro) Citalopram (Celexa) Citalopram (Celexa)

18 Depression Psychopharmacological Second Line Treatments SSRI and Augmentation (If partial response to SSRI) ( Select agent for synergistic effects, e.g. Lithium or Buspirone) SSRI and Augmentation (If partial response to SSRI) ( Select agent for synergistic effects, e.g. Lithium or Buspirone) Monotherapy, different class (TCA, SNRI, Bupropion, mirtazapine) Monotherapy, different class (TCA, SNRI, Bupropion, mirtazapine) Combination Antidepressants Combination Antidepressants

19 Making Sense of FDA Advisories (Emslie, 2004; Riddle, 2004; ACNP, 2004) The American College of Neuropyschopharmacology (ACNP) conducted an independent analysis of over 2000 youth on SSRI’s from published clinical trials, unpublished data from pharmaceutical companies, & data from Britain's MHRA (drug regulatory agency). The American College of Neuropyschopharmacology (ACNP) conducted an independent analysis of over 2000 youth on SSRI’s from published clinical trials, unpublished data from pharmaceutical companies, & data from Britain's MHRA (drug regulatory agency).

20 Making Sense of FDA Advisories (Emslie, 2004; Riddle, 2004; ACNP, 2004) Suicide autopsy data-49 adolescents completing suicide & receiving SSRI's showed no antidepressant in blood; treatment noncompliance. Suicide autopsy data-49 adolescents completing suicide & receiving SSRI's showed no antidepressant in blood; treatment noncompliance. Prepubertal children & young adolescents are more prone to behavioral disinhibition & activation with SSRI's Prepubertal children & young adolescents are more prone to behavioral disinhibition & activation with SSRI's

21 Pediatric Attention Deficit Disorders Three core Symptom Clusters Hyperactivity: fights, talks excessively, unable to stay in seat, runs/climbs excessively, motor driven. Hyperactivity: fights, talks excessively, unable to stay in seat, runs/climbs excessively, motor driven. Impulsive, Blurts out answers, interrupts, has difficulty waiting or taking turns. Impulsive, Blurts out answers, interrupts, has difficulty waiting or taking turns. Inattentive; Distracted, forgets things, makes careless mistakes, has difficulty sustaining attention to monotonous tasks Inattentive; Distracted, forgets things, makes careless mistakes, has difficulty sustaining attention to monotonous tasks

22 Pediatric Attention Deficit Disorders ADHD, Combined Type (most prevalent) ADHD, Combined Type (most prevalent) ADHD, Predominantly Hyper-Active- Impulsive ADHD, Predominantly Hyper-Active- Impulsive ADHD, Predominately Inattentive ADHD, Predominately Inattentive

23 ADHD Comorbid Disorders 35% oppositional defiance disorder 35% oppositional defiance disorder 75% mood disorders 75% mood disorders 25% anxiety 25% anxiety 75% conduct disorders 75% conduct disorders

24 Psychopharmacological Treatments For ADHD Methylphenidate based include: Ritalin, Ritalin LA, Metadate CD, Focalin, Focalin XR, and Concerta. Methylphenidate based include: Ritalin, Ritalin LA, Metadate CD, Focalin, Focalin XR, and Concerta. Amphetamine base include; Adderall, Adderall XR, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine. Amphetamine base include; Adderall, Adderall XR, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine.

25 Psychopharmacological Treatments For ADHD Second line treatments Amoxetine (Strattera), Tricyclic antidepressants, and Bupropion (Wellbutrin). Second line treatments Amoxetine (Strattera), Tricyclic antidepressants, and Bupropion (Wellbutrin). Tenex and Clonidine which are blood pressure medications that can be helpful with attention deficit disorders. Especially with hyperactivity and impulsivity and TIC’s. Tenex and Clonidine which are blood pressure medications that can be helpful with attention deficit disorders. Especially with hyperactivity and impulsivity and TIC’s.

26 Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Thought to represent a developmental subtype of adult onset BAD Thought to represent a developmental subtype of adult onset BAD Characterized by a mixed presentation versus discrete episode of depression & mania Characterized by a mixed presentation versus discrete episode of depression & mania First episode more likely mixed or mania, with irritability & “affective storm” then euphoria First episode more likely mixed or mania, with irritability & “affective storm” then euphoria Often predicts a chronic or rapid cycling course & poor or partial response Often predicts a chronic or rapid cycling course & poor or partial response

27 Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Co-morbid Disorders 60-90% ADHD 60-90% ADHD 50-60% Anxiety disorders 50-60% Anxiety disorders 88% Opposition defiant DO 88% Opposition defiant DO 40% Conduct disorder 40% Conduct disorder 40% Learning disabilities, reading 40% Learning disabilities, reading 30% Learning disabilities, math 30% Learning disabilities, math Psychotic symptoms Psychotic symptoms

28 Bipolar and ADHD Symptoms Symptoms may overlap: Symptoms may overlap: Talks excessively: jumps from toppic to topic Talks excessively: jumps from toppic to topic Easily distracted; frequently changes activities and plans Easily distracted; frequently changes activities and plans Fidgety; motor restlessness Fidgety; motor restlessness Interrupts; butts in; blurts out; low social inhibitions Interrupts; butts in; blurts out; low social inhibitions Impulsive; disregard for potential adverse effects Impulsive; disregard for potential adverse effects

29 Distinguishing symptoms between ADHD & Pediatric Bipolar DO ADHD ADHD Forgetful: loses things: makes careless mistakes Forgetful: loses things: makes careless mistakes Avoids sustained mental effort & monotonous tasks Avoids sustained mental effort & monotonous tasks Doesn’t listen: difficulty following directions Doesn’t listen: difficulty following directions Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder Inflated self esteem: grandiosity Increased goal directed activity Increased sexual interests; sexual indiscretions

30 Bipolar sleep patterns in Children Sleep patterns may distinguish Bipolar (mood) high and low energy periods Sleep patterns may distinguish Bipolar (mood) high and low energy periods Low energy cycle Low energy cycle High energy cycle High energy cycle

31 Psychopharmacological Bipolar Treatments Mood Stabilizers Mood Stabilizers Depakote Depakote Lithium Lithium Tegretol Tegretol Trileptal Trileptal Tpomax Tpomax Antipsychotics Antipsychotics Abilify (Aripiprazole) Zyprexa (Olanzapine) Geodon (Ziprasidone) Seroquel (Quetiapine) Risperdal (Risperidone) Invega

32 The End Psychiatric Diagnosis in children can be complicated to diagnosis and complicated to treat. Often the best solution is a combination of psychotherapy and medications. Psychiatric Diagnosis in children can be complicated to diagnosis and complicated to treat. Often the best solution is a combination of psychotherapy and medications.Questions?


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