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The Demography of English Language Learner Students in the Southeast November 5, 2008 Laureen D. Laglagaron Policy Analyst National Center on Immigrant.

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Presentation on theme: "The Demography of English Language Learner Students in the Southeast November 5, 2008 Laureen D. Laglagaron Policy Analyst National Center on Immigrant."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Demography of English Language Learner Students in the Southeast November 5, 2008 Laureen D. Laglagaron Policy Analyst National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy

2 Points of Departure No growth in native labor force Global competition Baby boom retirement Economic slowdown Integration: lack of attention

3 Source: MPI Data Hub, 2006 Source: MPI Data Hub, March Almost Half of All Metro Areas with 1 Million+ Immigrants Are in the US

4 14.8% 38.1 Million (2007) 4.7% 12.6% (2007) 40 Million + (2010) 13% (2010) 38 Million Immigrants in 2007: 12.6% of US Population Source: US Census Bureau data; Analyses by the Migration Policy Institute and the Urban Institute.

5 Children of immigrants... 23% of all children in US 30% of all low-income children 75% are US citizens Demographic Impacts Immigrants are... 1 in 8 US residents 1 in 2 new workers in 1990s

6 Immigrants are: 12% of US residents 15% of US workers 21% of low-wage workers* 45% of low-skilled workers** The Immigrant Workforce Notes: * Low-wage workers earned less than twice the federal minimum wage in **Low-skilled workers are those with less than a high school education. Source: Urban Institute calculations from the 2005 Current Population Survey.

7 By Immigrant population will R ise to 81M from current 38M Represent 20% of US population Account for all growth in working-age population Source: Pew Research Center, 2008.

8 People in the USA U.S. Citizens Noncitizens Unauthorized/ Out of Status Types of Immigrant Status

9 People in the USA U.S. Citizens Noncitizens Unauthorized/ Out of Status Immigrants “Green Card” LPR Resident Alien Non-immigrants Tourists Students High-Tech Workers Types of Immigrant Status … plus Refugees

10 Two-Thirds of Legal Immigrants Admitted Via Family Ties Source: Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, Number of legal permanent residents in 2007: 1,052,415

11 Majority of Immigrants are from Latin America and Asia Source: 2007 American Community Survey. Number of immigrants in 2007: 38.1 million Immigrants as a share of total US population: 12.6%

12 Source: MPI’s tabulations of US Census, 2000 and American Community Survey, DE: # More States Feel the Impact of Immigration: Largest and Fastest-Growing Immigrant States States with 1.5 million or more immigrants (2007) States (ranked) with more than 200% growth ( )

13 37.5 Million Foreign Born in 2006 Legal permanent residents (LPRs) 28% Legal temporary residents 3% Naturalized citizens 31% Refugees 7% Unauthorized migrants 30% One in Three Immigrants is Unauthorized Source: Urban Institute estimates.

14 Drop in Unauthorized with Economic Slowdown Notes: Estimates are based on residual methodology. Bars indicate low and high points of the estimated 90% confidence interval. The symbol * indicates that the change from the previous year is statistically significant. Source: March 2008 Supplements to the Current Population Survey, Pew Hispanic Center in Passel and Cohn (2008).

15 Many Children in Unauthorized Families 4.6 million children, who constitute: 27% children of immigrants 5% of all US kids Two-thirds (3 million) are US citizens One-third (1.6 million) are unauthorized Much larger share of teens than young children Source: Urban Institute estimates, 2003.

16 Generational Progress Continues – for All Groups Source: Waldinger and Reichl, 2006, Current Population Survey, March st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd+ Generation Percent Teenagers (Ages 16 to 20) Enrolled in School Full-Time, by National Origin and Generation, 2000 * Europe refers to Europe, Canada, and Australia.

17 One in Five College-Educated Immigrant Workers Are in Unskilled Occupations, Notes: *Refers to persons from Europe, Canada, and Oceania. Unskilled occupations require no more than modest on-the-job training (e.g., construction laborers, drivers, and maids). Source: American Community Survey, pooled 2005 and Percent of college-educated workers in unskilled occupations 18% US born Europe* Latin America AsiaAfrica

18 High Unemployment Rates: Recent Arrivals and African Born Share of the College Educated Who Are Unemployed Source: ACS analysis from Batalova & Fix Uneven Progress: The Employment Trajectories of Skilled Immigrants in the United States (MPI 2008).

19 Social Mobility Trends Among Immigrants Immigrants with mid to high skills tend to experience downward mobility upon immigration. Foreign academic and professional qualifications are discounted. Foreign academic and professional qualifications are discounted. Vocational credentials and experience are hard to document. Vocational credentials and experience are hard to document. Lack of knowledge of local labor market. Lack of knowledge of local labor market. Poor knowledge of the English language. Poor knowledge of the English language. Low-skilled immigrants are unlikely to suffer much wage depreciation and employment effects after immigrating because they are already at or near the bottom of the scale. Within 20 to 25 years, most adult immigrants catch up with their native- born counterparts. Those from certain nonwhite, minority backgrounds do not catch up.

20 Average Freshman Graduation Rate to 79.9 percent 80.0 percent or greater 69.9 percent or less Average Freshman Graduation Rate In the United States, Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2006.Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2006

21 Most LEP Children are Native Born Notes: The figures refer to LEP students ages 5 to 18 currently enrolled in school. Source: US Census, Recent arrivals: 42% Recent arrivals: 52%

22 LEP Students Attend Linguistically Segregated Schools Source: Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999.

23 “Former” LEPs Do Better Average Scores of 8 th Graders in Math by English Proficiency: NAEP, 1996 to 2007 Source: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 1996 to 2007 Math Assessments. Non-LEP Former LEP LEP

24 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment United States

25 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment Alabama

26 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment Georgia

27 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment Louisiana

28 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment Mississippi

29 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 Rate of Total and LEP Enrollment Growth: From 1995 to 2006 LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment South Carolina

30 Growth of Children of Immigrants Number of children of immigrants age 18 or under (in thousands) Source: MPI analysis of 1990 and 2000 US Census, and 2006 American Community Survey.

31 Children of Immigrants (as a share of all children age 18 and under in 2006) Source: MPI analysis of 1990 and 2000 US Census, and 2006 American Community Survey. 0.8%0.6%

32 LEP Students by Generation (all public K-12 schools) Source: MPI analysis of 2006 American Community Survey.

33 LEP Students by Generation (all public elementary and middle schools) Source: MPI analysis of 2006 American Community Survey.

34 LEP Students by Generation (all public high schools) Source: MPI analysis of 2006 American Community Survey.

35 NCLB 2001 IAEA 1994 Hawkins- Stafford Act 1988 ECIA 1981 ESEA 1978 ESEA 1974 Note: Appropriations shifted to forward funding in FY Source: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, National Assessment of Title I Final Report (Washington, DC: Author, October 2007). Constant 2007 Dollars Current Dollars ESEA Title I Grants to States,

36 ESEA Title I Grants to Southeast States, Mississippi South Carolina Alabama Louisiana Georgia Source: US Department of Education, “Funds for State Formula-Allocated and Selected Student Aid Programs.”

37 ESEA Title III Grants to Southeast States, Source: US Department of Education, “Funds for State Formula-Allocated and Selected Student Aid Programs.” Mississippi South Carolina Alabama Louisiana Georgia

38 Native Language of LEP Students Enrolled in Public Schools, 2006 Languages spoken by LEP students enrolled in public preK-12 schools in: Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina Source: MPI analysis of 2006 American Community Survey.

39 Most LEP Students in Public Schools Speak Spanish Source: MPI analysis of 2006 American Community Survey. Share of LEP students enrolled in public preK-12 schools who speak Spanish

40 Quality of English instruction services Alignment of ELL and mainstream curricula Native language instruction and testing policies Use of valid and reliable assessments Teacher recruitment/retention Pre-service and in-service training Need for additional time Lack of targeted federal, state, and local funding to meet immigrant/ELL needs Key K-12 Issues

41 Reengineer Adult Basic Education & English as a Second Language programs Retain accountability for LEPs in Elementary and Secondary Education Act Impact aid to meet states’ demand for English language instruction Establish National Office for Immigrants and Refugees Integration Policy Agenda

42 Find data, reports and other analysis by state and for the nation at For More Information State-by-state immigration legislation Language Portal: A Translation and Interpretation Digital Library

43 For more information, contact: Laureen D. Laglagaron Migration Policy Institute th Street, NW Washington, DC (202)


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