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Assessment in service learning: Student learning outcomes Julie A. Hatcher, Exec. Dir. Assoc. Prof. Philanthropic Studies Kristin Norris,

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment in service learning: Student learning outcomes Julie A. Hatcher, Exec. Dir. Assoc. Prof. Philanthropic Studies Kristin Norris,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment in service learning: Student learning outcomes Julie A. Hatcher, Exec. Dir. Assoc. Prof. Philanthropic Studies Kristin Norris, ABD Assessment Director Center for Civic & Social Responsibility University of Kansas May 21, 2014

2 Outcomes for work/play shop Basic intro to assessment (of x, y, z) Implications of a “public work” approach at KU IUPUI “case study” – CMG – NSSE Identify 1-2 AAC&U learning outcomes for either – Course – Program – Campus Identify next steps you will take on your assessment matrix

3 Current Support for “Civic” Membership Organizations – AAC&U – AASC&U – American Academy of Arts and Sciences – Campus Compact – Imagining America – NASPA Foundations – Bonner Foundation – Carnegie Foundation: Elective Classification for C.E – Kettering Foundation – Lang Foundation – Lilly Endowment – Lumina Foundation – Teagle Foundation – John Templeton Foundation Government – State Commissions of Higher Education – Massachusetts Board of Higher Education

4 Rigor in Research (Assessment) Rigorous thinking Hypothesis exploration Systematic approach Builds upon prior research Contributes to the field Triangulation across inquiry Information synthesis Creates useful, relevant knowledge (Patton, 2012)

5 Schoen’s Reflective Practice Trait of a good professional Reflection-in-action Attentive to new knowledge Test, adjust, reframe their models of practice Revise plans

6 Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Reflective Observation Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation

7 Reflective SL Practitioner Practice SL Course/Program/ Curriculum Design Implications for you/others Program/Course Redesign Theory Research/SoTL Formative Assessment Reflection Activities Classroom Assessment

8 My Reflective Observations Wine or peanut M&Ms Important to identify a “north star” Takes a significant amount of time Year of Assessment in 1997 ish Highly connected to scholarship We find our way by walking… 3 semesters until “in the saddle” Refine, improve reflection strategies Ongoing improvement of processes Tweaks

9 Boyte’s concept of Public Work Places public work (not deliberation or social justice) at the center of democracy Common pool resources (Ostrom School) Collective action – “we” not “they” Lay participation is essential Trait of a democratic professional (Dzur) Conflict is intrinsic and healthy aspect Co-generators of knowledge -- partners

10 Assessment as Public Work Portland State case study -- resources – Assessing service-learning and civic engagement: Principles and techniques AAC&U – VALUE rubric case study – 16 rubrics; all available free – No need to reinvent the wheel IUPUI case study

11 Current Context at KU Reflect – pair & share – wagon wheel What are the key “pressures” or levers that are motivating you personally to be here today? What do you hope to do, improve, advance as a result of being here today? Who do you need to bring to the table so this is done collectively?

12 Terms of Scholarship -- data Assessment (What occurred?) – Formative – during the course/program – Summative – end of the course/program Program Evaluation (What aspect?) – Program Evaluation Research Research (Why? What conditions?) – Qualitative – Quantitative – Mixed-methods

13 Definition Service learning is a course-based, credit- bearing educational experience* in which students a) participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs*, and b) reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain – further understanding of course content, – a broader appreciation of the discipline, and – an enhanced sense of personal values* and civic responsibility. (Bringle & Hatcher, 1995)

14 Formative Assessment in SL Classroom Assessment Techniques (Angelo & Cross, 1995) – Exit Cards – Minute Papers – Mid-semester evaluation Reflection activities – Pair and Share – Journals - various types (DEAL model) – Value of informal/unstructured Community partner feedback – Coffee……and conversation

15 Summative Assessment -- Data Course-based – Grades – End-of-Course survey; pre/post – Products Curriculum-based – E-portfolio – Digital stories – Exit survey for majors University-based – Counting; classifying – Longitudinal impact on students – Evidence of community impact

16 Assessment in SL Course Are grades sufficient? (perhaps) What literature review could help to “ground” the assessment? (ex. Nutrition, Architecture) How can you use/analyze reflection activities as a source of data to document student learning? What pre/post learning could you assess? What other products could you gather? Multiple sources of data -- triangulation

17 Designing and Assessing SLClass/Program Learning Objectives of Course - Curriculum - Campus Selection of Community Partner and Service Experience Structured Reflection Activities Framed by Learning Objectives Products are Created Assessment of Student Learning and Products Scholarship of Teaching/Learning SOTL

18 Service Learning Outcomes Academic Development – Persistence and retention – Achievement and aspirations Life Skills – Racial tolerance – Cultural understanding Civic Responsibility – Commitment to community – Aspirations to volunteer (Sax & Astin, 1997; UCLA/HERI) (www.compact.org/resource/aag.pdf)www.compact.org/resource/aag.pdf

19 Meta-Analyses of SL Requires a body of research Psychology, business, communicatio ns Academic Personal Social Citizenship Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice

20 Case Study from IUPUI Institutional culture and commitment Assessment & Civic Engagement Assessment Institute (Oct , 2014) Ethos in our work Bob Bringle’s leadership Scholarship and research Signature Center designation IUPUI Book Series – Research on SL Vol 1, Vol 2 Boyer Scholars Faculty Learning Community IUPUI Research Academy (each May) Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice

21 Types of Citizenship Across Disciplines Civic professionalism Social responsibility Social justice Connected knowing: Ethic of care Public leadership Public intellectual Engaged/public scholarship (Battistoni, 2002)

22 Civic-Minded Graduates “to what end? ” Civic-Minded Professionals John Dewey Democracy and Education William Sullivan Habits of the Heart Work and Integrity Ernest Boyer “public good” argument Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice

23 CMG as a “North Star” A civic-minded graduate is one who a)is formally educated and b)has the capacity and orientation to work with others c)in a democratic way d)to improve the community. (Hatcher, 2011)

24 Civic-Mindedness “a person’s inclination or disposition to be knowledgeable of and involved in the community, and to have a commitment to act upon a sense of responsibility as a member of that community” Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice (Steinberg, Hatcher, Bringle, 2011)

25 Civic-Minded Graduate Model

26 Civic and Workforce Development Developing civic-minded graduates and professionals Developing workforce “soft” skills Recognizing the importance of place Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice (Battistoni & Longo, 2012)

27 Domains of CMG: Civic Knowledge More than purely academic knowledge (dates, places, important civic or political events) Knowledge of volunteer opportunities (ways to contribute to society and of nonprofit organizations) Knowledge of contemporary social issues (current events and the complexity of issues in modern society) (Steinberg, Bringle, & Hatcher 2011)

28 Domains of CMG: Civic Skills Communication and Listening (ability to communicate with others and listen to divergent points of view) Diversity (understanding the importance of, and the ability to work with others from diverse backgrounds) Consensus-building (ability to work across difference to come to an agreement or solve a problem)

29 Domains of CMG: Civic Dispositions – Valuing community engagement (understanding the importance of service to others, and being actively involved in the community) – Self-efficacy (have the desire to take personal action, with a realistic view that the action will produce the desired result) – Social trustee of knowledge (feeling a sense of responsibility and commitment to use the knowledge gained in college to serve others)

30 CMG Survey 30 Likert-type items (student self-report) Knowledge, skills, dispositions, behaviors 6-point response format Demographic items Student activity items Paper or online administration Adaptable: “My education at IUPUI” – course, or major, depends on the research question

31 Assessment Tools Course Evaluation SL End –of-Course Survey Domains to include for your campus? Student Learning Outcomes Civic-Minded Graduate Scale Civic-Minded Graduate Narrative Civic-Minded Graduate Rubric AAC&U VALUE Rubric (Civic Engagement)

32 Implications of CMG--CMP Program Design Alternative Break; days of service Service-scholarship Applications Plater Medallion Consultations with faculty and departments New work in faculty development and graduate education

33 Pair and Share Put on your “disciplinary hat” Why is it important to you as a… landscape architect, student affairs professional …to include civic learning in your course/program? What type of civic learning do you hope occurs for your students? Who are your stakeholders, and why would they care about these outcomes?

34 Learning Objectives List 2 civic learning objectives in your community engaged program/course. (How do these align with broader curriculum?) (How do these align with accountability for external program review, if applicable?) (How do these align with the campus mission for student learning?)

35 “Deep Learning” High Impact Practices (e.g., “HIPs”) Distinct value of service learning Additive value of multiple experiences See AAC&U, Ashley Finley, Director of Research and Assessment NSSE Data (12 items) Higher-Order learning Integrative learning Reflective learning Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice Leadership Civic Engagement Social Justice

36 Participation in Service Learning Courses The independent variable, participation in serving learning courses, was derived from NSSE survey question 1K: In your experience at your institution during the current school year, about how often have you done each of the following? k. Participated in a community-based project (e.g., service learning) as part of a regular course

37 Participation in Service Learning Courses IUPUI Urban 13 Public Research NSSE Sample Freshmen56%38% 41% Seniors58%40%43%48%

38 Deep Learning The dependent variable deep learning was comprised of three different scales. Reliability analysis was conducted for higher-order learning (α=.83), integrative learning (α=.73), and reflective learning (α=.83). The data file was then split into freshman and senior students so the analysis could be conducted on these two populations separately.

39 Higher Order Learning Questions (α=.83) During the current school year, how much has your coursework emphasized the following mental activities? Applying theories or concepts to practical problems or in new situations Analyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory, such as examining a particular case or situation in depth and considering its components Making judgments about the value of information, arguments, or methods, such as examining how others gathered and interpreted data and assessing the soundness of their conclusions Synthesizing and organizing ideas, information, or experiences into new, more complex interpretations and relationships

40 Integrative Learning Questions (α=.73) In your experience at your institution during the current school year, about how often have you done each of the following? Worked on a paper or project that required integrating ideas or information from various sources Included diverse perspectives (different races, religions, genders, political beliefs, etc.) in class discussions or writing assignments Put together ideas or concepts from different courses when completing assignments or during class discussions Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with faculty members outside of class Discussed ideas from your readings or classes with others outside of class (students, faculty members, co-workers, etc.)

41 Reflective Learning Questions (α=.83) During the current school year, about how often have you done each of the following? Examined the strengths and weaknesses of your own views on a topic or issue Tried to better understand someone else’s views by imagining how an issue looks from his or her perspective Learned something that changed the way you understand an issue or concept

42 The Findings An independent-samples t-test evaluated differences in reported deep learning skills between students who participated in one or more service learning courses and those students who did not participate in service learning courses. Deep learning skills of higher-order learning, integrative learning, and reflective learning were all higher for both seniors and freshman who participated in service learning course(s).

43 IUPUI Freshman *p<.05, 2-tailed significance Construct # of Items Mean (Overall) N=524 Mean (Service Learning) N=305, 58% Mean (No Service Learning) N=219, 42% Mean Difference (SL and No SL) Reliability Effect Size Sig. Higher Order Learning Integrative Learning * Reflective Learning *

44 IUPUI Seniors *p<.05, 2-tailed significance Construct # of Items Mean (Overall) N=998 Mean (Service Learning) N=588, 59% Mean (No Service Learning) N=410, 41% Mean Difference (SL and No SL) Reliability Effect Size Sig. Higher Order Learning * Integrative Learning * Reflective Learning *

45 Implications Results contribute evidence of student learning at the institution level Findings are consistent with prior research on participation in service learning and improved student outcome measures (Astin et. al., 2000) Provide a rationale for institutions to support faculty who engage with the community partners to develop service learning courses

46 Matrix Framework Core ConceptKey Indicator of learning Methods to gather data Source of the data AAC&U Learning Outcome 1 AAC&U Learning Outcome 2


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