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Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator.

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Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:


2 Response to Intervention (RtI) at the Secondary Level: Keys to Implementation Madi Phillips, Ph.D. NCSP I-ASPIRE Regional Coordinator

3 Big Ideas about Today’s Presentation 1.We’re aligning a delivery system to educational needs. 2.We’re increasing the quality of teaching, tools, and support across 3-Tiers instead of moving the problem. 3.We’re shifting mind sets: Every problem learning (or behaving) becomes a special education problem. 4.In a perfect world, we shouldn’t have “RtI” (as an eligibility process) at the secondary level. 5.We’re shifting “Interventions” focus from reactive, punitive, and/or restrictive to proactive, preventative, inclusive. 6.We have the tools and we have experience, but there is a gap.

4 Special Education General Education Sea of Ineligibility Without Problem Solving

5 Student Profiles 8.7 million 4th-12th graders can’t cope with academic demands 74% of all 9th graders scored at Unsatisfactory or Basic Level on state assessment –Unsatisfactory = 3%ile WR; 1%ile RC –Basic=9%ile WR; 8%ile RC 70% of adolescents graduate; 50% of students with color do Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate

6 Student Profiles (cont) “On-track Indicator” –Students who stay “on track” in freshman year (earn 5 credits and no more than 1 F) 3.5 times as likely to graduate –One semester F decreases likelihood of graduating from 83% to 60% –2 Fs decreases likelihood to 44% –3 Fs decreases likelihood to 31%

7 General Education Special Education The “Old” Problem Solving Heuristic Severity of Educational Need or Problem Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit General Education with Support

8 What is NOT RtI: It’s not your father’s Oldsmobile 1.It’s Not About SE Eligibility with a new label (e.g., pre-referral intervention, old team- new name). 2.It’s Not About SE “Business as Usual” with programs that meet the needs of adults more than students. 3.Expecting GE Teachers to meet the needs of ALL students (180 students-180 different interventions).

9 Presentation Intended Outcomes 1. Describe a heuristic for multi-tiered service delivery for middle and high schools to meet the academic and socio-emotional/behavioral needs. 2. Provide illustrations of effective reading assessment for 1. Universal Screening, 2. Problem Identification 3. Progress Monitoring in Reading Intervention. 3. Provide illustrations of effective assessment and intervention tools necessary for 1. Basic Reading Skills 2. Success in Content-Area Classes 3. Behavioral Support 4. Give you strategies for implementation.

10 Bridging the Gap

11 Problem Solving Steps Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Plan Development What shall we do about it?

12 The VISION: To Provide Effective Interventions to Meet the Needs of ALL Students Through Early and Scientifically Based Interventions Through Careful Systems Planning Batsche, G. M., Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.

13 Information Explosion/ Instructional Time Dilemma 1960 1980 2000 Time Content

14 The Performance Gap / 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 / Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

15 The Performance Gap / Existing Support Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

16 The Performance Gap Years in School / Infrastructure Supports Existing Support Infrastructure Support Flexible Scheduling Planning Time Professional Development Time Extended Learning Time Smaller Learning Communities Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

17 The Performance Gap / Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Instructional Core System Learning Supports Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Progress Monitoring Data-Based Decision Making Problem-Solving Instructional Coaching Professional Learning System Learning Supports Years in School The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

18 The Performance Gap / Grade Level Expectations Demands Skills Instructional Core System Learning Supports Infrastructure Supports Current Supports Years in School Instructional Core Motivation/Behavior Supports Smarter Standards- Based Curriculum Planning Engaging Instructional Materials& Activities Student-Informed Teaching Connected Courses & Coherent Learning Continuum of Literacy Instruction The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

19 School Improvement Cycle Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Plan Evaluation Did our plan work? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Problem Analysis Why is it happening? Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Problem Identification What is the Problem and Is it Significant? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Plan Development What shall we do about it? Problem Solving Process Similarities?


21 School Improvement Activity What are your current SI Goals? What content is covered in the current professional development plan? What problems or issues often come up at your school?

22 So...WHAT is RTI? 1. An eligibility process for determining if a student has a learning disability? 2. An opportunity to redress years of dissatisfaction with both special education and general education? We See IT as Both

23 How We See It Needs-Based Service Delivery Systems Problem- Solving Service Delivery System RTI

24 Program vs. Framework not programsResponse to Intervention (RtI) and School-wide Positive Behavior Support are not programs, but frameworks for designing and implementing proactive, preventative programming using data.

25 A Secondary Problem-Solving Model Basic Skills or Functional Literacy Problem? Yes No What Service? Instruction in Basic or Literacy Skills Instruction in Content Area Knowledge How? Direct ServiceThru Special Education Direct ServiceThrough GE; IndirectService Thru SE or GE Interventions Goal Master Basic or Literacy Skills Master ContentArea Knowledge Evaluation Tool CBM Mainstream Consultation Agreements CTM’s & VM

26 Who Do We Serve in a Problem-Solving Model? We identify: 1. Students with Basic Skills or Severe Literacy Deficits for Direct Service 2. Students without these Deficits who Need Indirect Service for Success in Content Area Courses

27 A Model of Secondary Special Education Service Delivery Should Be Predicated On: 1. Students with serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in these skills via special education 2. Students without serious functional literacy or basic skills deficits receiving instruction in content area courses via general education with relevant special education assistance or general education interventions

28 Scientific Standards for Progress Monitoring Reliability Quality of Good Test Validity Quality of Good Test Sufficient Number of Alternate Forms and of Equal Difficulty Essential for Progress Monitoring Evidence of Sensitivity to Improvement or to Effects of intervention Critical for Progress Monitoring Benchmarks of Adequate Progress and Goal Setting Critical for Progress Monitoring Rates of Improvement are Specified Critical for Progress Monitoring Evidence of Impact on Teacher Decision Making instruction or Student Achievement; Critical for Formative Evaluation Evidence of Improved Instruction and Student Achievement; Gold Standard for Progress Monitoring Logistically Feasible--Low Cost, Efficient, Accurate,Critical for IMPLEMENTATION

29 Typical High School Reader

30 A Simple, Economical Way of Identifying Educational Need

31 Grade 8 Material < 10th percentile at beginning of Grade 8 High School Student with Severe Reading Problem

32 A Severe Performance Discrepancy

33 Likelihood of Passing the High Stakes Test

34 Obvious and Potentially Severe Educational Need Grade 6 Material < 25th at beginning of the year

35 Testing in Even Easier Material Grade 4 Material about 50th percentile at end-of-year, but high error rate

36 Graph the Results and See the Problem Severity

37 Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Understanding Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension What Does R-CBM Measure? Beware the Trap of the BOXES- Low Scores “in the Box” Mean You Must TEACH the Things in the Box ALL These Skills General Reading Skill

38 ReadingComprehension Knowledge Fluency* We Refer to It as General Reading Skills Metacognition Language Prosody Prosody Automaticity/Rate Automaticity/Rate Accuracy Accuracy Decoding Decoding Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness Oral Language Skills Oral Language Skills Knowledge of Language Knowledge of Language Structures Structures Vocabulary Vocabulary Cultural Influences Cultural Influences Life Experience Life Experience Content Knowledge Content Knowledge Activation of Prior Activation of Prior Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge about Knowledge about Texts Texts Motivation & Motivation & Engagement Engagement Active Reading Active Reading Strategies Strategies Monitoring Strategies Monitoring Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Fix-Up Strategies *modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research; For Some, the Hardest Thing They’ll Ever Do The Easiest Thing To Teach The Longer It Takes... The Bigger Deficits Here And Here And the MOST Unmotivated Here Oral Reading is the EASIEST to Measure--Let’s Get This Down and Add MORE Tools

39 Case Study Severe Basic Skill Problem: Provide Intense Basic Skill Intervention!

40 Predicted Not to Pass High Stake Test

41 Determine the Severity of the Problem Using Survey Level Assessment and Write an IEP

42 Provide a Powerful Basic Skill Intervention and Monitor Progress

43 Conduct a Survey Level Assessment to Estimate Basic Skill Discrepancy

44 Possible Data Sources Activity Brainstorm the potential data sources in your school… Examples may include: –Dean Referrals, Tardies, Suspensions, Expulsions, Outside Placements, Drop Outs –Common Assessments, CBM, Yearly Progress Pro, Failure Rates

45 The High School Solution: Building Continuously Improving Tier 1 General Education Instruction ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies (Kansas) Well-Designed Curriculum with a “Big Ideas” Focus or Ability to “Distill” Curriculum to Big Ideas Effective Secondary Classroom Management Study and Organizational Skills Curriculum Modification

46 Increase the Capacity of General Education to Teach ALL Students Critical Content regardlessAll students learn critical content required in the core curriculum regardless of literacy levels. Teachers compensate for limited literacy levels by using… Explicit teaching routines, Adaptations, and Technology to promote content mastery. For example: The Unit Organizer Routine all most some

47 Key Skills Sets for Secondary Support (

48 A Major Source of Support for Secondary

49 ml

50 Content Enhancement Routines (Creating “learning-friendly” classrooms) A way of teaching academically diverse classes in which… –The integrity of the content is maintained –Critical content is selected and transformed –Content is taught in an active partnership with students The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

51 Content Enhancement Teaching Routines Planning & Leading Learning Course Organizer Unit Organizer Lesson Organizer Exploring Text, Topics, & Details Framing Routine Survey Routine Clarifying Routine Ordering Routine Teaching Routines Concept Mastery Routine Concept Anchoring Routine Concept Comparison Routine Increasing Performance Quality Assignment Routine Question Exploration Routine Recall Enhancement Routine The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning




55 Elida Cordora NAME DATE The Unit Organizer BIGGER PICTURE LAST UNIT/Experience CURRENT UNIT NEXT UNIT/Experience UNIT SELF-TEST QUESTIONS is about... UNIT RELATIONSHIPS UNIT SCHEDULEUNIT MAP CURRENT UNIT 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 8 The roots and consequences of civil unrest. The Causes of the Civil War Growth of the Nation The Civil War Sectionalism pp. 201-236 1/22 Cooperative groups - over pp. 201-210 1/28 Quiz 1/29 Cooperative groups - over pp. 210-225 "Influential Personalities" project due 1/30 Quiz 2/2 Cooperative groups - over pp. 228-234 2/6 Review for test 2/7 Review for test 2/6 Test Areas of the U.S. Differences between the areas Events in the U.S. Leaders across the U.S. was based on emerged because of became greater with was influenced by descriptive cause/effect What was sectionalism as it existed in the U. S. of 1860? How did the differences in the sections of the U.S. in 1860 contribute to the start of the Civil War? compare/contrast 1/22 What examples of sectionalism exist in the world today?

56 CONCEPT DIAGRAM Always PresentSometimes Present Never Present Examples: Nonexamples: TIE DOWN A DEFINITION EXPLORE EXAMPLES Key Words Å PRACTICE WITH NEW EXAMPLE CONVEY CONCEPT NOTE KEY WORDS OFFER OVERALL CONCEPT CLASSIFY CHARACTERISTICS Æ Ä À Á Â Ã À Á Â United States Athens leaders accountable views tolerated direct indirect rule by dictator Democracy a form of government leaders accountable by elections citizens have equal voting rights individuals can oppose government direct representation indirect representation centralized power decentralized power separation of power rule by king United States England in 1993 Athens (500 B.C.) China in 1993 England under Henry VIII Macedonia (under Alexander) A democracy is a form of government in which leaders are accountable to the people through elections, citizens have equal voting rights, individuals can oppose the government, all views are tolerated, and there is a statement of civil and political right rule by dictator all views are tolerated statement of civil & political rights Russia 1993 unified power censorship of press hereditary transfer of power

57 To really create social change, many people have to be organized, outspoken, and persistent! Progressive Era Unsafe food Monopolies Limited voting rights Unsafe and unfair working conditions Muckrakers wrote about problems Bully pulpits forced new laws Demonstrators created public pressure Activists organized protests Meat Inspection Act Anti- trust Act Voting rights expanded Commerce and Labor Departments Tools for Social Change Social Changes The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (What’s important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea a period of social change in the U. S. Social Problems

58 Learning Strategies Curriculum AcquisitionStorageExpression of Competence Word IdentificationFirst-Letter MnemonicSentences ParaphrasingPaired AssociatesParagraphs Self-QuestioningListening/NotetakingError Monitoring Visual ImageryLINCS VocabularyThemes Interpreting VisualsAssignment Completion Test-taking The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

59 Acquisition Strategy Self-Questioning AA ttend to clues as you read SS ay some questions KK eep predictions in mind II dentify the answer TT alk about the answers The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

60 Embedded strategy instruction- Example of ASK IT Strategy Implementation All teachers teach the steps of a self-questioning strategy (ASK IT), regularly model its use, and then embed paraphrasing activities in course activities through the year to create a culture of “active reading.” The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

61 Storage Strategy First-Letter Mnemonic FF orm a word with first letters II nsert a letter RR earrange the letters SS hape a sentence TT ry combinations The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

62 Expression Strategy Error Monitoring W rite on every other line using PENS R ead the paper for meaning I nterrogate yourself using the COPS questions T ake the paper to someone for help E xecute a final copy R eread your paper The University of Kansas Center for Research and Learning

63 GOOD NEWS!! SASED has identified several local certified trainers and is planning to offer a workshop series on the University of Kansas Content Enhancement Routines & Learning Strategies Curriculum for the 2008-2009 school year.

64 How will Content-Area Strategy Instruction be provided? Middle School –Embedded into content-area courses –Strategy Instruction course as part of the fine arts rotation –Strategic tutoring in place of foreign language High School –Embedded into content-area courses –Strategic tutoring in place of study hall –Strategy Instruction as an elective

65 A Major Source of Support for Secondary

66 Components of Well-Designed Syllabi Contact Information Course Goals and Big Ideas Instructions and Directions as to How to Get Help Course Materials Behavior Expectations and Consequences Detailed Information About the Grading System Course Calendar and Due Dates Self Monitoring Checklists Access to Models for Papers, Projects, Tests

67 Evaluate Components of Syllabus



70 Teacher(s): Time: The Course Organizer Student: Course Dates: How?What?Value? This Course: Content: Process: Course Progress Graph Course Questions: is about Course Standards: Introduction to Poetry Empowering students to learn what poetry is, what poetry does, and how poetry works. 1. How do poets resemble/differ from writers of other types of literature? 2. What kinds of information do poems present? 3. What writing tools and strategies do poets use? 4. Why do some readers like poetry and others dislike it? 5. What are the key traditions in poetry that will most usefully contextualize poetry for today’s readers? 6. What are common themes in poetry, and how do the themes speak to readers’ experiences? 1. Understanding form Journals 20% 2. Understanding content Papers 60% 3. Reflecting on reader Class 20% responses Discussions Critical vocabulary Class demo Paraphrasing Class demo Note-taking Class demo Ray Pence, Graduate Teaching Assistant, English

71 Community Principles Learning Rituals Course Map This Course: includes Performance Options Student: Critical Concepts Learned in these Units Introduction to Poetry Listening Persistence Mutual & Self-respect Openmindedness Small-group collaborations Reading journals Public poetry events Finding poetry in your immediate environment Student-teacher conferences Group presentations Visual representations Papers Websites VoiceFigurative LanguagePerformance RhythmPoetic traditionsArt DictionPoetic formsUse-value PersonaOral histories Poetry as Storytelling Poetry as Autobiography Poetry as Social History Poetry as Journey and exploration Poetry as Reflection & illumination of world Ray Pence, Graduate Teaching Assistant, English

72 Not Everything We Teach Is Equally Important “The sheer quantity of information requires us to constantly determine what to include in a course” Keith Lenz, 2003


74 Students need intensive intervention to work on basic literacy components. Students develop the foundational phonics, fluency, and comprehension skills through specialized, direct, and intensive instruction in reading. Intensive instruction in listening, speaking, and writing is often a part of these services. For example: Courses in researched-based reading programs such as the SRA Corrective Reading Program or REACH.

75 How will basic literacy skill instruction be provided? Requires a double-block schedule of English/Language Arts and Reading. Where does the time come from? –High School Option Reading as an elective –Middle School Options Reading instruction instead of foreign language Reading course within the fine arts rotation

76 An intensive multi-faceted option for those who need it. Students with underlying language needs learn the linguistic, related cognitive, metalinguistic, and metacognitive underpinnings they need to acquire content literacy skills and strategies. For example: Speech-language pathologists, special education teachers, and social workers engage students in educational language and literacy instruction using a researched-based program such as the Sopris West Language! Program.

77 0Briefing%20Paper%20Secondary%20Reading.pdf

78 Read the Carnegie Documents:


80 Websites for Scientifically Based Behavior Support National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Safe and Civil Schools:

81 At the School Level



84 At the Referral Level

85 High School Tier 1 Example: English Dept. prior to 1993: –Reading and writing skills were not taught in a consistent manner at LFHS –Members of the English Dept. began learning about Nancie Atwell’s reading and writing workshops and developed a proposal to bring this concept to LFHS –The School Board approved the proposal and all teachers were trained in the program for the 1994-95 school year

86 Writing Workshop PRINCIPLES AND REQUIREMENTS: –Each student must produce 3 pieces of writing that go through the conferencing process –Each student must produce a portfolio of the writing process –The focus is on the writing process –Students must have ownership and their written work must be student-generated

87 Reading Workshop PRINCIPLES AND REQUIREMENTS: –At least 12 days/year must be devoted to reading workshop –Students should be provided time to read –Students should gain ownership over texts by selecting what they read –Students should respond to text in a variety of ways and there must be teacher/student interaction regarding reading

88 English Dept 2005-06 High level of satisfaction with the writing skills of students at LFHS Less satisfaction with reading skills and overall enjoyment of reading (based off of 1 st semester English finals and anecdotal information)

89 Vocabulary: The Broad Context….. “Of the many compelling reasons for providing students with instruction to build vocabulary, none is more important than the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. Indeed, one of the most enduring findings in reading research is the extent to which students’ vocabulary knowledge relates to their reading comprehension.” Lehr, F., Osborn, J., Hiebert, E.H. (2004). Focus on Vocabulary, San Francisco: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.

90 Bringing Words to Life Isabel Beck M. McKeown L. Kucan Guilford Press

91 Vocabulary Matching

92 English (VM)

93 Science (VM)

94 Social Studies (VM)

95 Results… Tier One - Basic words –chair, bed, happy, house Tier Two - Words in general use, but not common –concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity, convenient Tier Three - Rare words limited to a specific domain –tundra, igneous rocks

96 How can we use this information? Vocabulary Matching Screening can be completed in about 15 minutes –Using the cut scores provided we have reason to believe that students with scores less than 15 are likely to require strategic or intensive assistance between 16 and 25 may require strategic assistance above 25 are likely to be on track and can continue with instruction as planned –in order to meet academic expectations for Illinois State Achievement test in 10th grade

97 Maze


99 R- CBM


101 Program Options Tier 1: Pre-teaching Key Vocabulary Tier 2: Co-taught English/Reading Block with REWARDS Co-taught Course on before, during, and after reading strategies with a focus on content-area text Tier 3: Social Opportunities Academic Readiness(SOAR): Includes Language!; Social Language Skills; Vocational Opportunities; Post-Secondary Exploration

102 Intermediate and Secondary Reading Interventions

103 Intensive Reading Intervention

104 High School Tier 2 Example: Freshman Reading Classes Class A: guided reading, modeling, class discussions, comprehension checks, oral reading, graphic organizers, REWARDS Class B: guided reading, modeling, class discussions, comprehension checks, oral reading, graphic organizers

105 WRC Mean Rate of Growth Per Week Class A mean rate of growth = 0.67 WRC/week Class B mean rate of growth = -1.22 WRC/week

106 Instructional Planning Form Goal: In 32 weeks, Cary will read 95 cwpm with at least 95% accuracy. Instructional Procedures Focus or Skill Teaching Strategy MaterialsArrangementsTimeMotivational Strategies Decoding FluencyREWARDS reading program REWARDS Class novels/short stories Small group (13:1) 50 min 2X/week Approx 30 min wk 1 min biweekly Grades Candy Peer Praise Charting progress Reading Comprehension Comprehension strategies (visual/graphic organizers) Graphic organizers Novels Small group (13:1) Varied 5 days/week Positive teacher feedback Grades Class Discussions REWARDS comp questions Novels REWARDS Small group (13:1) Daily 50 min 2X/week Positive teacher/peer feedback Candy

107 Cary’s Progress

108 Next Steps… Math! –Math Department Proposal: Screening & Progress Monitoring Yearly Progress Pro (YPP) McGraw-Hill –Includes: CBM & Custom Tests

109 YPP Examples 7th Grade Math Class 8th Grade CBM Probe

110 YPP Algebra & Geometry Skill Clusters




114 Developing Components Systems –General survey of priorities, Effective Behavior Support Survey, Team Implementation Checklist tell you what you want to do Practices –School-wide Evaluation Tool tells you how much is in place Data –Curriculum Based Measures and Office Referral Data tell you with whom to focus Steve Romano and Hank Bohanon

115 School wide Expectations Identify expectations of the setting Develop team/plan/support Directly teach expectations Consistent Consequences, Acknowledge/Reinforce (Tall, Vente’, Grande) Collect Data Communicate with staff On-going evaluation

116 Accessed 3-7-06 =


118 (02-03 compared to 03-04 X2 = 53.199, df = 2, p =.000) (03-04 compared to 04-05 X2 = 6.324, df = 2, p =.042)

119 Systems/Data System - SET Information –Overall Score approximately 80% –Teaching @ 70% – Acknowledgment @ 50% Impact data –School has access to discipline and attendance data

120 Practice To address tardies (high school) – names of students from class were put into a drawing. Four students’ names were drawn at random weekly, if they had no tardies, they could choose a prize.

121 Report from School Teachers were not able to sustain, teachers did not remember to conduct drawings. We can use department chairs to provide reminders and support to staff (System)

122 Control Classrooms

123 Treatment Classrooms

124 At least at the school-wide level – you are trying to get 80% of your staff teaching! In Illinois – when schools get to 80/80 –Fewer risk factors –More protective factors –More likely to have tried interventions beyond SW –More students with fewer discipline problems (see FYO5 Report)

125 Examples of Targeted Interventions Behavior Education Program (BEP) –Check-In, Check-Out Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Support Planning**Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Support Planning** 

126 Behavior Education Program (BEP) Features Students identified and receive within a week Check-in and check-out daily with an adult at school Regular Feedback and reinforcement from teachers Family component Daily performance data used to evaluate progress Taken from: Hawken & March, 2004

127 General Data Decision Rules

128 Step 1: Problem Identification Question: What is the discrepancy between what is expected and what is occurring? 2/3 of Maple’s individual student referrals were due to lack of on-time assignment/homework completion.

129 A homework assignment is defined as any academic assignment assigned by a core academic, foreign language, allied arts, or physical education teacher to be completed after school. Homework does not include bringing appropriate supplies to class, turning in forms of any kind, or participation in fundraising activities. A homework assignment that is turned in on time is defined as being received by the assigning teacher at the requested day and class period.

130 Comparison of Fall 2003 and Fall 2004 homework completion 2003 Average student had 18 assignments Average student turned in one assignment late Average student had 7% of homework late 2004 Average student had 18 assignments Average student turned in one assignment late Average student had 6% of homework late

131 ~0-1 assignments ~2 ~3 ~0-1 assignments ~2 ~3 Total Number of Homework Turned in Late Fall 2003Fall 2004

132 Step 2: Problem Analysis Question: Why is the problem occurring? Teachers determined a number of hypotheses including: –Lack of time –Lack of skill –Lack of motivation/interest in the subject area

133 Step 3: Plan Development Question: What is the goal? All students would turn in at least 80% of their homework on time. Question: How will progress be monitored? Teachers will meet weekly and calculate the average work turned in per week for all students attending Homework Extension.

134 Question: What is the intervention plan to address the goal? Homework Extension takes place during lunch periods. Students assigned to Homework Extension will go to the lunchroom to get their lunch (if purchasing their lunch) and then report to the Homework Extension classroom. Homework Extension is supervised by one/two of the lunch room supervisors in a separate classroom.

135 Homework Extension lasts the entire lunch period for the course of five school days. Students are then reevaluated. If work completion exceeds 80%, the student may return to the lunchroom. If not, he/she will be reassigned to Homework Extension. If a student attends Homework Extension for three consecutive weeks, then the student is automatically referred for individual student problem solving.

136 Step 4: Plan Implementation Question: How will implementation integrity be ensured? The principal required a weekly e-mail sent out to report which students qualified for Homework Extension and which attended Homework Extension and met their goals. The principal and assistant principal found a classroom and staff who would assist and monitor students’ work completion during lunch.

137 Step 5: Plan Evaluation Question: Is the intervention plan effective? A.Are the students making progress toward the goal? Yes, 66% of students were in HE for 1 week. (33%- 2 weeks; 3%-3weeks; 11 students total.) B.Is the student decreasing the discrepancy between him/her and the general education peers? Yes, 77% of students were in HE only 1x. (11%-2x; 8%-3x; 4%-4x; 6 students total.) C.Is the plan able to be maintained in the general education setting? No, 34% of students were involved in HE; Universal not targeted problem.

138 Plan Evaluation Outcomes Form

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