2 Part A. MLA (Adapted from Research and Documentation Online 1. General approachA signal phrase + a parenthetical phraseSignal phrase includes the author’s nameParenthetical phrase:comes after the cited materialincludes at least a page numberExample: One driver, Peter Cohen, says that after he was rear-ended, the guilty party emerged from his vehicle still talking on the phone (127).
3 Part A. MLA 2. Author named in parenthesis If a signal phrase does not name the author, put the author's last name in parentheses along with the page number.Example:Most states do not keep adequate records on the number of times cell phones are a factor in accidents; as of December 2000, only ten states were trying to keep such records (Sundeen 2).Note: no punctuation between the name and the page number
4 Part A. MLA 3. Author unknown Either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses. Titles of books are underlined; titles of articles are put in quotation marks.Example:As of 2001, at least three hundred towns and municipalities had considered legislation regulating use of cell phones while driving ("Lawmakers" 2).
5 Part A. MLA 4. Two or three authors Name the authors in a signal phrase, as in the following example, or include their last names in the parenthetical reference: (Redelmeier and Tibshirani 453).Example:Redelmeier and Tibshirani found that "the risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (453).When three authors are named in the parentheses, separate the names with commas: (Alton, Davies, and Rice 56).
6 Part A. MLA 5. Encyclopedia or dictionary Unless an encyclopedia or a dictionary has an author, it will be alphabetized in the list of works cited under the word or entry that you consultedExample:The word crocodile has a surprisingly complex etymology ("Crocodile").
7 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 1. General guidelines:Alphabetizing the list: Alphabetize the list by the last names of the authors (or editors); if a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.Indenting: Do not indent the first line of each works cited entry, but indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces). This technique highlights the names of the authors, making it easy for readers to scan the alphabetized list.Web addresses: Do not insert a hyphen when dividing a Web address (URL) at the end of a line. Break the line after a slash. Also insert angle brackets around the URL.
8 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) Single author: For a work with one author, begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma; then give the author's first name, followed by a period.Example: Dickens, Charles. / Brown, DanMultiple Author: For works with two or three authors, name the authors in the order in which they are listed in the source. Reverse the name of only the first author. For a work with four or more authors, either name all of the authors or name the first author, followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").Example:Walker, Janice R., and Todd Taylor.Wilmut, Ian, Keith Campbell, and Colin Tudge.Sloan, Frank A., Emily M. Stout, Kathryn Whetten-Goldstein, and Lan Liang.Sloan, Frank A., et al.
9 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) UNKNOWN AUTHORWhen the author of a work is unknown, begin with the work's title. Titles of articles and other short works, such as brief documents from Web sites, are put in quotation marks. Titles of books and other long works, such as entire Web sites, are underlined.Examples:(Article or other short work) "Media Giants."(Book or other long work) Atlas of the World.
10 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHORIf your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, use the author's name only for the first entry. For other entries, use three hyphens followed by a period. The three hyphens must stand for exactly the same name or names as in the first entry. List the titles in alphabetical order (ignoring the article A, An, or The at the beginning of a title).Example:García, Cristina. The Agüero Sisters. New York: Ballantine, 1998.---. Monkey Hunting. New York: Ballantine, 2003.
11 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 2. Books2.1 Basic formatGenerally, arrange the information in 3 units: the author's name the title and subtitle (underlined) the place of publication, the publisher, and the dateExample:Tan, Amy. The Bonesetter's Daughter. New York: Putnam, 2001.
12 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 2.2 Author with an editorBegin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation "Ed." means "Edited by," so it is the same for one or multiple editors.Plath, Sylvia. The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath. Ed. Karen V.Kukil. NewYork: Anchor-Doubleday, 2000.
13 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 2.3 EditorAn entry for a work with an editor is similar to that for a work with an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed." for "editor" (or "eds." for "editors").Example:Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.
14 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 3. Electronic resourcesCite the reference according to the following order:i. the name of the author or corporate author (if known)ii. the title of the site, underlinediii. the names of any editorsiv. the date of publication or last updatev. the name of any sponsoring organizationvi. the date you accessed the sourcevii. the URL in angle bracketsNote: provide as much of this information as is available
15 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 3.1 With an author:Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther Jan <http://www.susanlynnpeterson.com/lut her/home.html>.
16 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 3.2 Author unknown:Margaret Sanger Papers Project. 18 Oct History Dept., New York U. 6 Dec.2004<http://www.nyu.edu/projects/ sanger>.
17 Part A. MLA: List of works cited (References) 3.3 With editor:Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Ed. Anthony F. Beavers U of Evansville. 24 Jan <http://eawc.evansville.edu/index.htm>.Note: If the site has no title, substitute a description, such as "Home page," for the title. Do not underline the words or put them in quotation marks.Example:Yoon, Mina. Home page. 29 Sept Jan <http://www.pa.msu.edu/~mnyoon>.
18 Part B. WRITING TABLE OF CONTENTS AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A table of contents of a research report should at least have the following point:Introduction: background and aim of the studymethodology/process: telling how the research is conducted and how the findings are presentedSummary of conclusions drawn from the study
19 Part B. WRITING TABLE OF CONTENTS AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The executive summary should be written according to the table of contents. In other words, the executive summary should include everything mentioned in the table of contents, including a brief introduction telling the background and purpose of the study, an explanation of the methodology, 3 to 5 major findings and the conclusions drawn based on the findings (as well as recommendations if available).
20 Part. C DOCUMENTING A MEETING I. AgendaAn agenda should include:(apologies for absence)minutes of the last meetingmatter arising from the minutesnew business to be discussedAOB (any other business)date of the next meeting
21 Part. C DOCUMENTING A MEETING II. MinutesMinutes of meeting must include the following things:1. The name of the body that held the meeting2. Date of the meeting3. Who was the chairperson and who the secretary4. Names of those present5. Apologies of absence6. Minutes of the last meeting7. Matters arising from the minutes8. What was said/decided, etc9. When the next meeting is to take place
22 Part. C DOCUMENTING A MEETING II. MinutesThe language of minutes should be:Impersonal, objective languageShort sentences and paragraphsUse of the past tenseHeadings and subheadings