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Deer Valley High School General Physical Education Unit Basic Knowledge of Exercise.

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1 Deer Valley High School General Physical Education Unit Basic Knowledge of Exercise

2 Exercise Exercise is a planned physical activity. This means going out of your way to dedicate part of your day to your physical health. Exercise is a planned physical activity. This means going out of your way to dedicate part of your day to your physical health.

3 Examples of Exercise Going to the Gym Going to the Gym PE Class PE Class Walking to school instead of driving/riding Walking to school instead of driving/riding Playing sports Playing sports Going for a bike ride Going for a bike ride Going for a walk Going for a walk Running a mile Running a mile Lifting weights Lifting weights

4 How much should I exercise? It is recommended by the Surgeon General that children get at least 60 minutes of exercise a day most days of the week to help prevent disease. It is recommended by the Surgeon General that children get at least 60 minutes of exercise a day most days of the week to help prevent disease.

5 What changes can I make to my lifestyle to incorporate more exercise? Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Put down the video games and play a pick-up game with your friends. Put down the video games and play a pick-up game with your friends. If you do play video games, play the Wii Fitness games in which you are active. If you do play video games, play the Wii Fitness games in which you are active. Spend time with your family playing active games instead of watching TV. Spend time with your family playing active games instead of watching TV. Park farther away in the parking lot, which forces you to walk more. Park farther away in the parking lot, which forces you to walk more. Ride your bike or walk to the store when you can. Ride your bike or walk to the store when you can.

6 What do I need to be Physically fit? Cardiovascular Fitness- Cardiovascular Fitness- Having good cardiovascular fitness means having a healthy, strong heart. You achieve this by being in constant motion for a long period of time. As your heart gets stronger, it can pump more blood with each beat. Someone who has great cardiovascular fitness will generally have a lower resting pulse rate than someone with poor cardiovascular fitness. Having good cardiovascular fitness means having a healthy, strong heart. You achieve this by being in constant motion for a long period of time. As your heart gets stronger, it can pump more blood with each beat. Someone who has great cardiovascular fitness will generally have a lower resting pulse rate than someone with poor cardiovascular fitness.

7 WHAT ARE THE FIVE COMPONENTS OF HEALTH RELATED FITNESS 1. FLEXIBILITY = The ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. 1. FLEXIBILITY = The ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. 2. CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS = The heart, lungs, and blood vessels ability to send fuel (O2) to the bodies tissues. 2. CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS = The heart, lungs, and blood vessels ability to send fuel (O2) to the bodies tissues. 3. MUSCULAR STRENGTH = The ability to exert force against resistance. 3. MUSCULAR STRENGTH = The ability to exert force against resistance.

8 WHAT ARE THE FIVE COMPONENTS OF HEALTH RELATED FITNESS 4. Muscular Endurance = the ability of muscles to work for an extended period of time. 4. Muscular Endurance = the ability of muscles to work for an extended period of time. 5. Body Composition = The amount of fat, muscle, bone, and tissue in the body. 5. Body Composition = The amount of fat, muscle, bone, and tissue in the body.

9 Important Terms Resting Heart Rate- is the number of times your heart beats per minute. Usually between 60-80bpm. Resting Heart Rate- is the number of times your heart beats per minute. Usually between 60-80bpm. Max Heart Rate- is the highest bpm recommended that your heart rate gets to during an exercise session. Max Heart Rate- is the highest bpm recommended that your heart rate gets to during an exercise session. Target Heart Rate- a range you should keep your heart rate during a particular exercise or program. Target Heart Rate- a range you should keep your heart rate during a particular exercise or program.

10 Calculating Target HR Formula for Target Heart Rate Formula for Target Heart Rate 220 – Age = Max Heart Rate 220 – Age = Max Heart Rate 220 – 20 yrs = 200 MHR 220 – 20 yrs = 200 MHR MHR x 75% = Bottom end of Zone MHR x 75% = Bottom end of Zone 200 x.75 = 150 BPM 200 x.75 = 150 BPM MHR x 85% = Top end of Zone MHR x 85% = Top end of Zone 200 x.85 = 170 BPM 200 x.85 = 170 BPM Target Heart Rate Zone Target Heart Rate Zone 150 – 170 BPM (Maintain for a minimum of 20 minutes) 150 – 170 BPM (Maintain for a minimum of 20 minutes)

11 Important Terms Resting Pulse- bpm when you are at rest. Resting Pulse- bpm when you are at rest. Stroke volume- the amount of blood pumped by each heart beat. Stroke volume- the amount of blood pumped by each heart beat.

12 Ways to improve cardiovascular fitness. 30 minute (or longer) run or fast walk 30 minute (or longer) run or fast walk Using the Elliptical Walker in the gym for 20 minutes without stopping. Using the Elliptical Walker in the gym for 20 minutes without stopping. Playing basketball without stopping for a period of time. Playing basketball without stopping for a period of time. Swimming laps for 20 minutes Swimming laps for 20 minutes Circuit Training Circuit Training

13 PRINICIPLES OF TRAINING Principles of training = The body becomes stronger and functions better if increased demands are placed upon it. Principles of training = The body becomes stronger and functions better if increased demands are placed upon it. Overload = Do more than what you normally do. Overload = Do more than what you normally do. Rep- one completion of an exercise movement Rep- one completion of an exercise movement Set- group of reps done consecutively Set- group of reps done consecutively

14 F. I. T. T F =Frequency I =Intensity T= time T =Type 1. Frequency = How often you are exercising. (5 to 6 times a week) 1. Frequency = How often you are exercising. (5 to 6 times a week) 2. Intensity = How hard you are working out. 2. Intensity = How hard you are working out. 3. Time = How long you are working out. 3. Time = How long you are working out. 4. Type = The type of exercise you do. This is often called the mode. 4. Type = The type of exercise you do. This is often called the mode.

15 Types of muscle contractions Isometric- muscular contraction, but no movement Isometric- muscular contraction, but no movement Eccentric- elongation of the muscle Eccentric- elongation of the muscle Concentric-Shorting of a muscle Concentric-Shorting of a muscle

16 Three Common Types of Stretching A. STATIC STRETCHING = Stretching muscles beyond normal range of motion and holding the stretch for seconds. A. STATIC STRETCHING = Stretching muscles beyond normal range of motion and holding the stretch for seconds. B. DYNAMIC STRETCHING = Slow continuous and controlled movement. B. DYNAMIC STRETCHING = Slow continuous and controlled movement. C. BALLISTIC STRETCHING = A bouncing motion that doesn’t allow your muscles to tell you its stretched too far. C. BALLISTIC STRETCHING = A bouncing motion that doesn’t allow your muscles to tell you its stretched too far.

17 A Practice Plan Should Include A 5-10 minute session of dynamic movement activities (jog/dynamic stretching) A 5-10 minute session of dynamic movement activities (jog/dynamic stretching) Drills/activities/Sports specific activities Drills/activities/Sports specific activities 5-10 minute static stretching/easy slow jog (cool down) 5-10 minute static stretching/easy slow jog (cool down)

18 BENEFITS OF WARMING UP: BENEFITS OF WARMING UP: It helps to make you feel like exercising. It helps to make you feel like exercising. It increases the blood supply to your muscles and joint tissues. It increases the blood supply to your muscles and joint tissues. It creates heat in the muscles and joint tissues which makes them more flexible and resistant to injury. It creates heat in the muscles and joint tissues which makes them more flexible and resistant to injury. It increases the heart rate slightly. It increases the heart rate slightly. Warming-up raises the core body temperature. Warming-up raises the core body temperature. Warm-ups should last 5 to 10 minutes and should incorporate stretching of large muscle groups. Warm-ups should last 5 to 10 minutes and should incorporate stretching of large muscle groups.

19 BENEFITS OF USING A COOL-DOWN! A. It helps to prevent blood from pooling in the muscles you were using. A. It helps to prevent blood from pooling in the muscles you were using. B. If you do not cool- down, less blood will return to your heart and you may feel light-headed, nausea, and pass-out. B. If you do not cool- down, less blood will return to your heart and you may feel light-headed, nausea, and pass-out. C. It prevents some muscle soreness from developing after exercise. C. It prevents some muscle soreness from developing after exercise.

20 Other benefits of using a cool-down! After you’ve reached and maintained your target heart rate level, it is important to recover back to your resting heart rate level slowly. After you’ve reached and maintained your target heart rate level, it is important to recover back to your resting heart rate level slowly. The cool-down reduces the pulse. It returns the blood to the heart in sufficient quantities to rid the muscles of lactic acid. The cool-down reduces the pulse. It returns the blood to the heart in sufficient quantities to rid the muscles of lactic acid. During cool-down is the best time to increase flexibility. During cool-down is the best time to increase flexibility.

21 Body Types ENDOMORPH: ENDOMORPH: A large, soft bulging body and a pear-shaped appearance. A large, soft bulging body and a pear-shaped appearance. High percentage of body fat High percentage of body fat Short neck Short neck Large abdomen Large abdomen Wide hips Wide hips Round, full buttock Round, full buttock Short, heavy legs Short, heavy legs

22 Body types MESOMORPH : MESOMORPH : A solid, muscular, and large-boned physique. A solid, muscular, and large-boned physique. Firm, well developed muscles Firm, well developed muscles Large bones Large bones Broad shoulders Broad shoulders Muscular arms Muscular arms Trim waist Trim waist Muscular buttocks Muscular buttocks Powerful legs Powerful legs

23 Body types ECTOMORPH: ECTOMORPH: A slender body and slightly build A slender body and slightly build Small bones Small bones Thin muscles Thin muscles Slender arms and legs Slender arms and legs Narrow chest Narrow chest Round shoulders Round shoulders Flat abdomen Flat abdomen Small buttocks Small buttocks

24 Define and distinguish the differences between “overweight” and “obesity.” Overweight - Exceed the desirable body weight by more than 10 percent, according to the height and weight charts. Overweight - Exceed the desirable body weight by more than 10 percent, according to the height and weight charts. Obesity – Exceed the desirable body weight by more than 20%. Obesity – Exceed the desirable body weight by more than 20%.

25 What is meant by “Ideal body weight”? What is meant by “Ideal body weight”? IDEAL BODY WEIGHT means how much you would weigh if you had an appropriate percentage of body fat.

26 Obesity Increases your chance of getting cancer Increases your chance of getting cancer Decreases quality of life Decreases quality of life Increases your chances of getting diabetes and heart disease Increases your chances of getting diabetes and heart disease Decreases your life expectance Decreases your life expectance Increases healthcare costs by approximately $1400 extra a year out of pocket. Increases healthcare costs by approximately $1400 extra a year out of pocket. Can lead to injuries Can lead to injuries

27 Obesity Some health plans now, and probably more in the future are penalizing people because they are obese. Some health plans now, and probably more in the future are penalizing people because they are obese. Exercise and diet is the best way to fight obesity. Exercise and diet is the best way to fight obesity. Poor eating/exercise habits have a cumulative effect on weight and health. Poor eating/exercise habits have a cumulative effect on weight and health.

28 Obesity Can lead to serious back problems. Can lead to serious back problems. Can also lead to serious joint problems. Can also lead to serious joint problems.

29 When you become heavier, what effects does it have on the body? Breathing difficulties Kidney disorders High blood pressure Heart disease Stroke Pregnancy problems Shorter life expectancy Cancer and diabetes

30 A calorie is defined as what? Is a measure of energy the body is able to produce from food. Is a measure of energy the body is able to produce from food calories in 1lb of fat 3500 calories in 1lb of fat 1 gram of Carbohydrate = 4 calories 1 gram of Carbohydrate = 4 calories 1 gram of Protein = 4 calories 1 gram of Protein = 4 calories 1 gram of Fat = 9 calories 1 gram of Fat = 9 calories Ex. 1 gram is equal to the weight of a paperclip Ex. 1 gram is equal to the weight of a paperclip

31 List the three key factors to weight control. Diet = changing caloric intake. Exercise = changing caloric output. A combination of diet and exercise.

32 To maintain your body weight: Your caloric intake should be the same as your average daily caloric output. (Balanced caloric intake) Your caloric intake should be the same as your average daily caloric output. (Balanced caloric intake) In other words, you have to consume as many calories as your body burns. In other words, you have to consume as many calories as your body burns. Negative caloric intake results in weight loss. Negative caloric intake results in weight loss. Positive caloric intake results in weight gain. Positive caloric intake results in weight gain.

33 What is meant by the “long-haul” approach? Weight loss is usually longer lasting if it is gradual. It is recommended that you lose no more than 1 or 2 pounds per week.

34 Define the following two eating disorders. Define the following two eating disorders. A. Anorexia nervosa Some people become so obsessed with the fear of being overweight that they refuse to eat normally. Some people become so obsessed with the fear of being overweight that they refuse to eat normally. Anorexics have a distorted body image. Anorexics have a distorted body image. People suffering from anorexia nervosa can starve to death or die from severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies. People suffering from anorexia nervosa can starve to death or die from severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

35 Define the following two eating disorders Define the following two eating disorders B. Bulimia - Bulimics use laxatives and self-induced vomiting to avoid gaining weight. Bulimics use laxatives and self-induced vomiting to avoid gaining weight. They frequently eat too much food, then get rid of it by inducing vomiting, using laxatives, and exercising very strenuously. These actions can cause serious medical problems. They frequently eat too much food, then get rid of it by inducing vomiting, using laxatives, and exercising very strenuously. These actions can cause serious medical problems.

36 Overeating Overeating is also considered an eating disorder. This can be as dangerous as either of the other 2 previous disorders we talked about, especially in the long run. Overeating is also considered an eating disorder. This can be as dangerous as either of the other 2 previous disorders we talked about, especially in the long run.

37 Goal of Deer Valley High School Physical Education Department It is our goal that you leave Deer Valley High School with the Knowledge, Skills and passion necessary to pursue a lifetime of fitness outside the walls of this campus. “Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body; it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.” John F. Kennedy


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