Presentation on theme: "Academic Outcomes of 4-Year University Freshman Cohorts: A Comparison of Dual Enrollees & Advanced Placement (AP) Credit Recipients Shoumi Mustafa and."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Outcomes of 4-Year University Freshman Cohorts: A Comparison of Dual Enrollees & Advanced Placement (AP) Credit Recipients Shoumi Mustafa and Paula Compton May 2014
Sample breakdown: In freshman cohorts, 22.9% have AP tests, 7.3% have dual enrollment credit, and another 2.5% have both. The remaining 67.3% do not have either AP tests or dual enrollment credit. Differences: Higher ability, family income and urban proportions characterize AP test- takers. Dual enrollees have smaller income, lower ACT scores, and higher rural representations. Outcomes: Students with AP tests achieve the highest academic outcomes in college. They are followed by dual enrollees, and students without either AP or dual enrollment credit in that order. Numbers, characteristics and outcomes: AP, dual enrollee and others compared
Groups and definitions Advanced Placement (AP) credit recipients: – Freshman 4-year university main campus students with scores of 3, 4 or 5 in Advanced Placement tests. Dual enrollees (DE): – Freshman 4-year university main campus students who had completed college courses while being enrolled in high schools. Both AP & dual enrollment credit recipients (AP & DE): – A small group of freshman 4-year university students who received both AP and dual enrollment credit. Students without accelerated learning (Others): – A very large group of freshman 4-year university main campus students; they do not have either AP or dual enrollment credit.
Freshman FY2007-08 to FY2001-12 cohorts: Numbers Only AP Credit (AP) Only dual enrollment credit (DE) Both AP & dual enrollment credit (Both) Without AP or dual enrollment credit (Others) Number FY2007-087,2221,80763523,383 FY2008-097,2102,22681023,223 FY2009-107,7392,47686422,541 FY2010-118,2192,79898022,506 FY2011-128,2922,99197722,281 FY2007-08 to FY2011-12 cohorts 38,68212,2984,266113,934
Freshman FY2007-08 to FY2001-12 cohorts: Sample composition Others * : 67.3% AP: 22.9% * Note: Others refer to students without AP or dual enrollment.
(AP)(DE)BothOthers N=38,682N=12,298N=4,267N=113,951 Male48.8%49.4% Age19.4 19.5 White 86.9%71.4% Black 2.7%14.9% Hispanic 2.7%3.1%2.3%2.6% Asian 5.0%1.5% Ethnicities other or unknown 4.4%5.4%3.1%9.5% Gender, age and ethnicities compared: AP, DE, Both and Others
Summaries of gender, age and ethnicities: AP, DE, Both and Others Gender: – AP : 50-50 gender split – DE: Almost 60% female – Both: 50-50 gender split – Others: 50-50 gender split. Age: No difference among the groups Ethnicity: – AP: 84.9% White, 3.3% Black, 4.7% Asian. – DE: 77.9% White, 12.1% Black, 1.6% Asian. – Both: 86.9% White, 2.7% Black, 5.0% Asian. – Others: 71.4% White, 14.9% Black, 1.5% Asian.
(AP)(DE)BothOthers N=38,682N=12,298N=4,267N=113,951 Family income$110,185$79,318 ACT scores27.820.8 Urban/suburban high income 54.6%32.8% Urban/suburban high poverty 16.6%17.7% Rural high income13.0%10.2% Rural high poverty4.0%4.3% No information on schools 11.8%35.1% Income, ability and schools compared: AP, DE, Both, and Others
Summaries of income, ability & communities: AP, DE, Both and others Family income: – AP: $119,534; DE: $80,993; Both: $110,185; Others: $79,318 ACT scores: – AP: 27.3; DE: 23.0; Both: 27.8; Others: 20.8 School communities: – AP : Urban 58.0% (high income - 50.4%, high poverty - 7.6%) Rural 8.9% (high income - 7.2%, high poverty – 1.7%) – DE : Urban 56.1% (high income - 34.0%, high poverty 22.1%) Rural 28.3% (high income - 21.0%, high poverty – 7.3%) – Both: Urban 71.2% (high income - 54.6%, high poverty 16.6%) Rural 17.0% (high income - 13.0%, high poverty – 4.0%) – Others: Urban 50.5% (high income – 32.8%, high poverty 17.7%) Rural 14.5% (high income - 10.2%, high poverty – 4.3%)
Outcome Comparisons: GPA, attempted hours, completion rates APDEBothOthers N=38,682N=12,298N=4,267N=113,951 GPA (out of 4) Number of attempted hours Proportion of completed hours
Summaries of outcomes: Comparisons Grade Point Average (GPA): – AP test-takers (AP) : 3.24 – Dual enrollees (DE) : 2.75 – Students with both AP & dual enrollment (Both) : 3.38 – Students without AP or dual enrollment (Others) : 2.42 Number of attempted hours: – AP test-takers (AP) : 32.1 – Dual enrollees (DE) : 29.1 – Students with both AP & dual enrollment (Both) : 32.3 – Students without AP or dual enrollment (Others) : 27.7 Proportion of completed hours: – AP test-takers (AP) : 94.4% – Dual enrollees (DE) : 84.8% – Students with both AP & dual enrollment (Both) : 94.5% – Students without AP or dual enrollment (Others) : 79.0%
Outcome comparison stable over time: Grade Point Average
Outcome comparison stable over time: Number of attempted hours
Outcome comparison stable over time: Proportion of completed hours
What do we learn? Sample composition and characteristics Composition: – AP credit recipients account for 22.9% of freshman cohorts. – Dual enrollees occupy 7.2% of the cohorts. – Another 2.5% of the freshman cohorts have both AP and dual enrollment credit. – Overall, accelerated learning credit is available for a third of the freshman cohort. The remaining 67.3% of freshman students do not have such credit. Characteristics: Gender, income, ability and urban-rural characteristics are the major differences between AP and DE groups. – AP has a 50-50 gender split although almost 60% of DE are female. – Relative to DE, the AP group has higher average family income ($40,000 more), higher average ACT scores (27.3 to 23.0), and higher representation of affluent urban communities (50.4% to 30.4%).
What do we learn? Academic outcome comparison Students with AP credit and those with both AP and dual enrollment credit achieve the highest average outcomes. – AP – GPA (3.24), attempted hours (32.1), completion rate (94.4%). – DE – GPA (2.75), attempted hours (29.1), completion rate (84.8%). – Both – GPA (3.38), attempted hours (32.3), completion rate (94.5%). – Others – GPA (2.42), attempted hours (27.7), completion rate (79.0%). Time trend: The averages are stable over time as well.
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