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The Crusades! Holy Wars or Barbarous Blasphemy?. What were the Crusades The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns—usually sanctioned by.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crusades! Holy Wars or Barbarous Blasphemy?. What were the Crusades The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns—usually sanctioned by."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crusades! Holy Wars or Barbarous Blasphemy?

2 What were the Crusades The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns—usually sanctioned by the Papacy—that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries. Originally, they were Roman Catholic Holy Wars to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans… The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns—usually sanctioned by the Papacy—that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries. Originally, they were Roman Catholic Holy Wars to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans…Papacy 11th13th centuriesRoman CatholicJerusalemHoly LandMuslimsPapacy 11th13th centuriesRoman CatholicJerusalemHoly LandMuslimswikipedia.com

3 Crusade Factoids There were 9+ crusades (depending how you count them) There were 9+ crusades (depending how you count them) The spark: Conquest of Byzantium by Seljurk Turks and Pope’s response. The spark: Conquest of Byzantium by Seljurk Turks and Pope’s response. Holy war against Muslim Moors had already began in Spain for over 100 yrs. Holy war against Muslim Moors had already began in Spain for over 100 yrs.

4 WHY? In 1071 at Manzikert, the shock that launched the Crusade, would have destroyed us-but for the Crusade. Constantinople would have fallen; all Europe would have been involved-but under that stimulus the West moved. Gual and the Rhine, Normandy, Flanders, Aquiaine, Lorraine armed, faced East, and went forward. The issue was the life or death of Christendom. -Hilaire Belloc In 1071 at Manzikert, the shock that launched the Crusade, would have destroyed us-but for the Crusade. Constantinople would have fallen; all Europe would have been involved-but under that stimulus the West moved. Gual and the Rhine, Normandy, Flanders, Aquiaine, Lorraine armed, faced East, and went forward. The issue was the life or death of Christendom. -Hilaire Belloc

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6 Role of the Pope In the year 1095 Pope Urban II promoted the First Crusade, preached by Peter the Hermit. The purpose of the Crusade was to take back the Holy City of Jerusalem, where Islam had desecrated the Holy Sepulcher of the Lord. After hearing the preachings of the Pontiff, the Faithful responded: "Dieux Le Volt!" Meaning, God Wills it!

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8 What would Jesus do? We believe that the Greeks have been punished through [the Crusades] by the just judgement of God: these Greeks who have striven to rend the Seamless Robe of Jesus Christ... Those who would not join Noah in his ark perished justly in the deluge; and these have justly suffered famine and hunger who would not receive as their shepherd the blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles. We believe that the Greeks have been punished through [the Crusades] by the just judgement of God: these Greeks who have striven to rend the Seamless Robe of Jesus Christ... Those who would not join Noah in his ark perished justly in the deluge; and these have justly suffered famine and hunger who would not receive as their shepherd the blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles. -- Pope Innocent III, to the Greek (Byzantine) Emperor, after sending a group of crusaders to Constantinople in 1204 in humble obedience to the edict of Christ in Luke 19:27: "But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me" (the chronicler Geoffrey Villehardouin said that never since the creation of the world had so much booty been taken from a city), -- Pope Innocent III, to the Greek (Byzantine) Emperor, after sending a group of crusaders to Constantinople in 1204 in humble obedience to the edict of Christ in Luke 19:27: "But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me" (the chronicler Geoffrey Villehardouin said that never since the creation of the world had so much booty been taken from a city), in G. G. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty (1969), p , quoted from Helen Ellerbe, The Dark Side of Christian History in G. G. Coulton, Inquisition and Liberty (1969), p , quoted from Helen Ellerbe, The Dark Side of Christian HistoryThe Dark Side of Christian HistoryThe Dark Side of Christian History

9 Time Line of major events: 1095 Pope Urban II preaches 1 st Crus Pope Urban II preaches 1 st Crus Euros take Jerusalem 1099 Euros take Jerusalem 1169 Saladin controls Egypt, take Damascus ’ Saladin controls Egypt, take Damascus ’ Saladin takes Jerusalem 1187 Saladin takes Jerusalem 1204 Crusaders sack Constantinople 1204 Crusaders sack Constantinople 1244 European forces lose Jerusalem for last time 1244 European forces lose Jerusalem for last time 1248 Louis IV invades Egypt 1248 Louis IV invades Egypt 1258 Mongols sack Baghdad 1258 Mongols sack Baghdad 1291 Sultan Khalil takes last Frankish state in Palestine – end of Crusades Sultan Khalil takes last Frankish state in Palestine – end of Crusades.http://www.umich.edu/~marcons/Crusades/timeline/timeline3.html

10 Church of the Holy Sepulchre 1009, when the Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al- Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed. 1009, when the Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al- Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed. 1009FatimidcaliphCairoal- Hakim bi-Amr AllahChurch of the Holy Sepulchre 1009FatimidcaliphCairoal- Hakim bi-Amr AllahChurch of the Holy Sepulchre Seljuk Turks later took Syria (including Jerusalem) from the Fatimids. Seljuk Turks later took Syria (including Jerusalem) from the Fatimids.

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18 Saladin Saladin was born into a Kurdish Saladin was born into a Kurdish family in Tikrit and was sent to Tikrit DamascusDamascus to finish his education. Damascus His father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, Najm ad-Din AyyubNajm ad-Din Ayyub was governor of Baalbek. Baalbek In Damascus, Saladin lived for ten years at the court of Nur ad-Din Nur ad-DinNur ad-Din(Nureddin). Occupied Fatimid Egypt, became Occupied Fatimid Egypt, became Sultan. Broke away from Abbs. and Seljuks and founded own Dynasty. Saladin was born into a Kurdish family in

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20 Crusades ( ) Estimated totals: Individual Events: Davies: Crusaders killed up to 8,000 Jews in Rhineland Paul Johnson A History of the Jews (1987): 1,000 Jewish women in Rhineland comm. suicide to avoid the mob, Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, v.5, 6 1st Crusade: 300,000 Eur. k at Battle of Nice [Nicea]. Crusaders vs. Solimon of Roum: 4,000 Christians, 3,000 Moslems 1098, Fall of Antioch: 100,000 Moslems massacred. 50,000 Pilgrims died of disease. 1099, Fall of Jerusalem: 70,000 Moslems massacred. Siege of Tiberias: 30,000 Christians k. Siege of Tyre: 1,000 Turks Richard the Lionhearted executes 3,000 Moslem POWs. 1291: 100,000 Christians k after fall of Acre. Fall of Christian Antioch: 17,000 massacred. [TOTAL: 677,000 listed in these episodes here.]

21 James Trager, The People's Chronology (1992) James Trager, The People's Chronology (1992) 1099: Crusaders slaughter 40,000 inhabs of Jerusalem. Dis/starv reduced Crusaders from 300,000 to 60, : Crusaders slaughter 40,000 inhabs of Jerusalem. Dis/starv reduced Crusaders from 300,000 to 60, : 2nd Crusades begins with 500,000. "Most" lost to starv./disease/battle. 1147: 2nd Crusades begins with 500,000. "Most" lost to starv./disease/battle. 1190: 500 Jews massacred in York. 1190: 500 Jews massacred in York. 1192: 3rd Crusade reduced from 100,000 to 5,000 through famine, plagues and desertions in campaign vs Antioch. 1192: 3rd Crusade reduced from 100,000 to 5,000 through famine, plagues and desertions in campaign vs Antioch. 1212: Children's Crusade loses some 50, : Children's Crusade loses some 50,000. [TOTAL: Just in these incidents, it appears the Europeans lost around 650,000.] ABOUT 1.5 mill total. [TOTAL: Just in these incidents, it appears the Europeans lost around 650,000.] ABOUT 1.5 mill total.

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