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Sport Books Publisher1 Society, Culture, and Sport Chapter 20.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Books Publisher1 Society, Culture, and Sport Chapter 20."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Books Publisher1 Society, Culture, and Sport Chapter 20

2 Sport Books Publisher2 Introduction We will trace the development of sport, both nationally and internationally. At the end, you will have a greater understanding of the historical evolution of modern day sport.

3 Sport Books Publisher3 Topics Covered: Brief history of sport in Canada Brief history of the Olympic Games Sport and Canadian culture Canadian athlete role models The business of sport Sport as a spectacle Being and informed consumer

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5 5 Early Canada ( ) New France (1665) Early Native Culture games –Focus on: Religious practice Cultural values Teaching of survival skills –Baggataway English Colony (1763) British wealth –Cricket –Horse racing –Fox hunting –Snow shoeing Under class –No time or money –Drinking

6 Sport Books Publisher6 Victorian Period ( ) Focus on socializing No leagues & competitions Few common rules Many leagues & regularly scheduled competitions Rule standardization Increased focus on participation and spectator sports Industrialization & urbanization New concept of free time Development of modern sport as leisure activity

7 Sport Books Publisher7 Emergence of Sport as a Commodity ( ) Great Depression WWII 1950’s Sport commercialization Amateur and professional sports Sense of nationalism Big business Spectatorship (through TV ) Example: Hockey 1917 – emergence of the NHL 1926 – 10 NHL teams Economic prosperity Technological changes Population growth

8 Sport Books Publisher8 Sport and the Canadian State (1960-Present) Role of government in Canadian sport: –Call for government to improve sport domain –Sport leader became more accepting of government involvement –J. Diefenbaker: recognized sport as a national pride booster –Duke of Edinburgh: rebuked Canadians for their low fitness

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Bill C-131 Marked the first time the federal government was committed to the promotion and development of sport. Resulted in: Annual funding Initiation of the Canada Games Research grant and scholarships for Physical Education specialists Bill C-131 Marked the first time the federal government was committed to the promotion and development of sport. Resulted in: Annual funding Initiation of the Canada Games Research grant and scholarships for Physical Education specialists

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11 Sport Books Publisher11 ATHENS, 1896 Not financed by Greek government 13 countries 9 sports 311 male athletes PARIS, 1900 Poorly organized Little attention 13 sports added Women competed (golf & tennis) ST. LOUIS, 1904 Coincided with World Fair 12 countries Majority competitors American LONDON, 1908 Returned some pride All judges = British STOCKHOLM, 1912 Well organized 2490 male athletes 57 female athletes (swimming)

12 Sport Books Publisher12 WWI ANTWERP, countries Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, & Turkey not allowed PARIS, 1924 Large increase in # of countries (44) and # of competitors (3092) AMSTERDAM, 1928 Women participated in athletics and gymnastics 48 countries LOS ANGELES, 1932 Reduced # of participants (travel costs) Many more spectators 1 st Olympic village

13 Sport Books Publisher13 WWII BERLIN, 1936 Hitler’s means of propaganda Jesse Owens foiled Hitler’s plan by winning 4 gold medals LONDON, countries 4,500 competitors Germany, Japan, Soviet Union did not attend HELSINKI, 1952 “Friendly Games” (no Germany) Soviet Union participated after 40 years Beginnings of East-West rivalry MELBOURNE, 1956 Equestrian events held in Sweden Spain, Holland, China, Egypt, & Lebanon pulled out for different political reasons E & W Germany combined

14 Sport Books Publisher14 ROME, 1960 All-white South African team Viewed by world- wide TV 1 st performance drug-related death TOKYO, 1964 South Africa banned because of apartheid policy Korea & Indonesia not allowed Successful and expensive MEXICO CITY, 1968 E & W Germany separate teams Demonstration against poverty and inequality of black people in USA 1 st drug tests MUNICH, 1972 Another protest against inequality of black people in USA Rhodesia not allowed for having all-white team Palestinian terrorists killed several Israelis MONTREAL, 1976 Extremely costly Heavy security French Canadians upset because of Queen’s Elizabeth II opening Taiwan withdrew African country boycotted in support of Apartheid policy

15 Sport Books Publisher15 MOSCOW, 1980 Boycotted by Western nations 80 nations Heavy security LOS ANGELES, 1984 Most commercialized to date Enormous profit Soviet Union, Cuba, and most Eastern European countries boycotted 140 nations SEOUL, 1988 Well organized & huge profit No problems Ben Johnson Professional Tennis players attended 1st time ATLANTA, 1996 Almost every country participated (197) 10,788 athletes Soviet Union replaced by Russian Federation and independent countries Small bomb only dark side BARCELONA, 1992 Entirely peaceful Soviet Union replaced by a “unified team” E & W Germany one team Slovenia separate from Yugoslavia USA bb “Dream Team”

16 Sport Books Publisher16 SYDNEY, 2000 Flawlessly organized No incidents 10,651 athletes 300 events Closing ceremonies were a spectacle

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Conclusions: Olympics are greatly affected by current political affairs It appears that a new era of sporting peace has evolved

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19 Sport Books Publisher19 Sport and Culture Sport and popular culture are intricately intertwined in developed countries Culture – the ways of life people create in any given society by interacting with one another Why is sport an important part of popular culture?

20 Sport Books Publisher20 1. A Quest for Excitement Sport satisfies a quest for excitement in otherwise somewhat uneventful lives in contemporary society

21 Sport Books Publisher21 2. Sports are appealing Because each and every one of us has an appreciation of the tremendous physical skills required to participate at high level sports

22 Sport Books Publisher22 3. Sport Has Cultural Significance Because of our need for development of social identification and rivalries We need to be part of a collective whole and to identify with the accomplishments of the collective whole e.g., “Summit Series”

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24 Sport Books Publisher24 James Naismith Inventor of basketball Wrote down original rules December, 1891 Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame stands as a tribute

25 Sport Books Publisher25 Tom Longboat Considered the best runner in the world at that time Won Boston Marathon in 1907 in poor weather conditions Full five minutes ahead of the old record

26 Sport Books Publisher26 Bill Crothers A fighter for honest, drug- free sport One of the best mid- distance runners in the world 800m gold medal in 1964 Tokyo Olympics

27 Sport Books Publisher27 Fergie Jenkins Outstanding baseball pitcher The first and sole Canadian in Major League Baseball’s Hall of Fame

28 Sport Books Publisher28 Paul Henderson Scored the last minute winning goal in the “Summit Series” of 1972 against Soviet Union

29 Sport Books Publisher29 Rick Hansen His many accomplishments include: –Captain of three national volleyball title winning teams –Marathon participant –Basketball championship participant 25,000 mile “Man in Motion” tour around the world raised $10 million for spinal cord research

30 Sport Books Publisher30 Terry Fox Embarked on the “Marathon of Hope” run across Canada with amputated leg Abandoned run in Thunder Bay, Ontario due to a relapse Raised $24.17 million for cancer research and remains an inspiration

31 Sport Books Publisher31 Silken Laumann World-renowned rower: –Two Pan-American Games gold medals –1991 world record in 2,000 metre sculls –One World Championship gold medal Great athletic accomplishments in spite of her chronic back problems and a pinched sciatic nerve

32 Sport Books Publisher32 Wayne Gretzky “The Great One” Dominated and re-wrote the NHL hockey record books including: –Goals scored –Assists in any one season

33 Sport Books Publisher33 Donovan Bailey Restored Canadian pride in track and field after the Ben Johnson tragedy of Seoul Gold medals in 100 metre dash and 4x100 metre relay in 1996 Olympics in Atlanta

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35 Sport Books Publisher35 The Business of Sport Sport is a big business and one of the fastest growing industries in developed countries Economic factors are now dominating major decisions about sport

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Gate receipts Internet hits Media rights Merchandise Licensing fees Revenues from sales of concessions Sponsorship Other? The Business of Sport

37 Sport Books Publisher37 Commercial sports grow best under the following economic conditions: Market economy where material rewards are highly valued In societies with large, densely populated cities Countries with a high standard of living Large amount of capital (public or private)

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Professional Sports in NA Athletes are paid Sports are privately owned Comparison of minor league vs. top NA franchise owners Minor LeagueTop franchise Profit Negative Lucky to break even Owners go out of business Make millions of dollars Owner description Individuals or partnership Large corporations, wealthy partnerships, or individuals

39 Sport Books Publisher39 Amateur Sport in Canada Athletes do not make a salary, and participate for the sole love of the game No owners Have governing bodies

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Governing body (e.g., Sport Canada, Canadian Olympic Association) Develop the rules and policies that govern national sport organizations (NSOs) Control athletes, events, and revenues

41 Sport Books Publisher41 Sport Sponsorship

42 Sport Books Publisher42 What is Sport Sponsorship? An agreement between a commercial company and an individual, team, or sport In return for money athletes advertise the names of sponsors

43 Sport Books Publisher43 Sponsorship in Professional Sports Sponsors are advertised through clothing lines, corporate logos on equipment, TV advertisements, and choice of commodities Millions of dollars are made from corporate sponsorships Sponsorship in Amateur Sports Athletes are required to wear or consume only certain types of products Only enough money is made to allow the athlete to train full time

44 Sport Books Publisher44 Advantages and Disadvantages for Professional Athletes Money Made Money Lost

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Advantages and Disadvantages for Professional Athletes Allows to give up a job and train full-time Strong reliance = powerful hold by the sponsor Sponsors request changes in organization Hard to attract sponsors if low TV appeal

46 Sport Books Publisher46 How It All Works Agreed period of time (months or years) Sign legal agreement to prevent quick termination if things go wrong –e.g., The actions of athlete bring bad publicity –e.g., The sponsor is linked with unethical practice Therefore, it important to make correct selection

47 Sport Books Publisher47 The Nature of the Sponsorship Should companies that sell unsuitable products be allowed to sponsor sports? Who makes that decision? –Amateur sports: several Canadian universities have specific committees –Professional sports: no committees??? In case of tobacco sponsorship, federal government made the decision

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49 Sport Books Publisher49 Television Televised sports have become a form of sportainment Sports account for a growing proportion of income made on the sales of commercial time by television companies TV companies are therefore willing to spend an escalating amount of money for the rights to televise certain sports and sporting events

50 Sport Books Publisher50 TV companies pay escalating amount of money for right to televise sports Televised sports attract large audience Corporations love to advertise during such popular time slots TV companies make large profits on commercial sales Televised Sport EventTV Rights Cost (millions) Sydney Olympics (2000) NFL (2001) NA (2001) NHL (2001) $705 $2.3 billion $660 $120 ProgramAverage US Audience (million) Winter Olympics 2/34/94) Super Bowl (1997) Super Bowl (1998) Super Bowl: 1 min advertising time = ~ $1 million

51 Sport Books Publisher51 Newspapers ~1900’s1920’sTODAY One sports page in common newspapers Sports “section” in a common newspaper Coverage devoted to sports = ~25% of the major newspapers More daily coverage devoted to sport than any other topic Sports section = 1/3 of total circulation Tremendous circulation reaches millions of readers Large advertising revenues for newspapers

52 Sport Books Publisher52 Books and Magazines Magazines –About major and minor sports –Popular content: biographies, statistics, pictures, all forms of news –Less popular content: sports in general Books –Popular content: (auto)biographies, coaching and training –Less popular content: novels based on sport

53 Sport Books Publisher53 Radio Before TV radio was #1 media form Advantages of radio (vs. TV) live event broadcasting: –Company: More economical because it involves smaller # of broadcasters and producers –Listener: Cost less, more mobile - therefore can do other things at the same time

54 Sport Books Publisher54 Film and Video In spite of their dramatic content, sports are not a popular topic for films and videos Video collection of sporting moments and instructional videos remain popular

55 Sport Books Publisher55 Internet Unlike other media forms: –Allows the consumer to access information at the time of his/her choosing –Provides a relatively “unedited” version of sports reality Use of Internet: –Extension of existing media –Fantasy leagues

56 Sport Books Publisher56 Sport as a Spectacle In summary, sport and the media depend on one another in may ways They could survive without each other, but both would be radically changed by the other’s absence Example?

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58 Sport Books Publisher58 Sport commercialism, as well as our rich sports history, impact on us as individual consumers. Corporations have a financial interest in the average Canadian citizen (e.g., the Canadian high school student).

59 Sport Books Publisher59 Factors Influencing Student Participation People participate in physical activity (PA) for different reasons at different points in their lives Therefore, issues considered by a high school student will be different than those considered by adult

60 Sport Books Publisher60 Participation Individual perception of the cultural importance of PA Commercial interests Media influences Teacher or coach Canadian athlete or team hero Other ?

61 Sport Books Publisher61 The Benefits of School and Community PA School and Community PA Improved fitness levels Improved self- esteem and overall mood Lower hospitalization costs Greater overall acceptance by one’s peers Development of school spirit Improving cohesion among students and faculty Other?

62 Sport Books Publisher62 Being an Informed Consumer Advertisers constantly tell us that what we currently have comes up far short We will almost always feel the need to buy more and better sports and exercise equipment

63 Sport Books Publisher63 Technology Continues to change sports: However, the choice of racket or club will make little, if any, difference to non-elite performance Therefore, it is best to go with less expensive equipment until an advanced level is reached Tennis players hit with greater power using larger, graphite, tightly strung rackets Introduction of the flexible glass pole completely changed pole vaulting

64 Sport Books Publisher64 Clothing Have performance benefit: –Heat removal –Windproof –Aerodynamic advantage –Biomechanical advantage of shoes Again, these technological advances have little benefit for non-elite performance


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