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History of Great Britain. Pre – Celtic Period – (before 800 BC) Stonehenge.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Great Britain. Pre – Celtic Period – (before 800 BC) Stonehenge."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Great Britain

2 Pre – Celtic Period – (before 800 BC) Stonehenge

3 Celtic Period (800 BC – AD 43) Iron Age Brythons (indigenous peoples inhabiting the island of Great Britain south of the river Forth) – the name Britain

4 Roman Period (AD 43 – 410) network of roads Hadrian’s Wall

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6 Anglo – Saxon Period (410 – 1066) 7 th century – 7 kingdoms (Heptarchy) Northumbria, Mercia, Kent, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex and Wessex– various dialects of English 829 – Egbert – King of Wessex united them -> 1 st English King 9 th century – Vikings

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8 Norman Period (1066 – 1154) 1066 – the Battle of Hastings – Normans led by William, Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror) defeated the Saxon King Harold French nobility – influence on language William was crowned king on Christmas Day, 1066 at Westminster Abbey

9 Magna Carta signed by King John in 1215 guarantee of rights and rule of law accept that King‘s will could be bound by the law

10 the Hundred’s Year War 1338 – 1453 conflict between two royal houses for the French throne England (House of Plantagenet) defeated

11 the Wars of the Roses 1455 – 1485 series of dynastic civil wars the House of Lancaster (red rose) X the House of York (white rose) Henry Tudor (Lanc.) defeated Richard III (York) -> Henry VII, he married Elizabeth of York -> end of fighting

12 Other important events 1543 – the Church of England separated from the authority of the Pope 1558 – Queen Elizabeth I – Britain – major sea power 1642 – 1649 – Civil War (Charles I against supporters of Parliament) -> Oliver Cromwell established a republic; 1660 – monarchy restored

13 1688 – Glorious Revolution – confirmation of the sovereignty of Parliament 1760s – 1850s – the Industrial Revolution – industrialisation and urbanisation (technological innovations, extension of the right to vote, formation of trade unions, development of universal public education) 1815 – defeat of Napoleon – Britain’s role strengthened its position as the leading world power

14 1837 – 1901 – reign of Queen Victoria 63 years and seven months, longer than that of any other British monarch Victorian era, a time of industrial, political, and military progress within the United Kingdom great expansion of the British Empire; large parts of Africa and Asia added married her first cousin, Prince Albert (became favourite)

15 World War I – huge casualties and economic losses 1921 – independence of Ireland 1927 – the formal name of the UK changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland World War II – great bombing damage, the Battle of Britain (mainly 1940)


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