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1 Cities and the industrial revolution. 2 as early as: dès to underpin: sous-tendre trend : tendance to pioneer: ouvrir la voie manuring: fumage breeding:

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Presentation on theme: "1 Cities and the industrial revolution. 2 as early as: dès to underpin: sous-tendre trend : tendance to pioneer: ouvrir la voie manuring: fumage breeding:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Cities and the industrial revolution

2 2 as early as: dès to underpin: sous-tendre trend : tendance to pioneer: ouvrir la voie manuring: fumage breeding: élevage / reproduction improvement: amélioration elsewhere: ailleurs to occur: avoir lieu plot : parcelle to restrict: restreindre increase: augmentation I. Trends that underpinned* the industrial revolution  The agricultural revolution: As early as 1650, Holland pioneered* new techniques such as heavy manuring*. New breeding* techniques were also developed. These improvements* were soon taken up in England and elsewhere* in Europe. Enclosure, which occurred* in the second half of the 18th Century, was particularly influential in England: large fields were divided into privately controlled plots* of land. Community access to these fields was restricted*.  Population growth: France: 18 million inhabitants in 1715 to 26 million in 1789 Italy: 11 million in 1700 to 16 million in 1770 England: 5 million in 1700 to 9 million in 1800 This increase* in population was accompanied by high levels of urban to rural migration.

3 3 goods : biens to boost: augmenter, renforcer shift: changement, modification pattern: motif, structure factory: usine outskirt: banlieue, périphérie railroad: une voie ferrée toll: un péage II. Factors that influenced the spatial organisation of cities  Population growth  An increase in the production of goods*: This was obviously due to technological progress. But population growth also contributed to boost* goods production by generating more demand for different types of goods.  Shifts* in patterns* of employment: Workers who had traditionally been self-employed in rural areas moved to cities: their status changed as they often became employed by large factories*. In England, most of these new industries were located within the city, not in the outskirts*.  Infrastructure improvement: - A major expansion of railroads* thanks to the iron industry. - New roads financed through tolls*: Turnpike roads and trusts. - Canals

4 4 iron: acier to stop (sj.) from (vb+ing): empêcher.. de.. northwards : vers le nord planned: aménagé pride: fierté city hall / civic centre: mairie civic centre: mairie courtroom: tribunal library: biblothèque fire engins: camions de pompier III. The industrial city  Spatial Structure A closer look at Middlesbrough  Middlesbrough’s population rose from 5,000 in 1840 to 75,500 in 1891. Its iron production was exported all over the world.  The river Tees, North of the original city centre, stopped the city from expanding northwards*. Therefore, a new centre had to be planned* further South.  A new city hall* (civic centre) was built. In many ways, this new building was erected to reflect local pride*. The Mayor of Middlesbrough is reported to have said « we are proud of our smoke » (1887). “One of the striking* features* of the development of many town centres in the UK during the 20 th century was the substantial* increase in buildings and areas devoted to* municipal administration and culture: the move from single ‘town halls’ to entire ‘civic centres’”. (Larkham, 2004) striking: frappant feature: caractéristique substantial: important devoted to: dédié à northwards : vers le nord

5 5 boundary : frontière around: autour along: le long de working class: classe ouvrière railway: voie ferrée light / dark : clair / foncé next to: à côté de docks: docks (port) wealthy: aisé to manage to: parvenir à to escape: s’échapper further out: plus loin Birmingham: The boundary of the built up area in 1828 is shown in red. Black areas are major industrial concentrations. Housing is found all around* the factories, in the central area of the city. Neath: The industrial zone (green) is located along* the river (light blue*). Working class* housing (dark blue*) is on the other side of the railway* (red). Liverpool: Working class housing (green) is located next to* the docks* (blue). Wealthy* people lived peripheral areas. Some people managed to* escape* the central areas, but often lived in a “transition area” (red) until they had enough money to move further out*.

6 6 overcrowding : surpeuplement to cram: entasser accommodation: logement backyard: arrière-cour packed: bondé dead-end: cul-de-sac foul: immonde alley: allée damp: humide cellar: cave courts: cour narrow: étroit IV. The consequences of urbanisation The main consequence of urbanisation was overcrowding*. “In the first half of the 19th century, the answer was all too often by subdividing existing property and cramming* more accommodation* into backyards*. Cities became more densely packed*, creating dead-ends* and foul* alleys*, and damp* cellars* offered miserable accommodation. In Liverpool, about a quarter of the population lived in courts* in the early 1840s, and perhaps ten per cent lived in cellars.” (source) (source) Back to back housing (uncontrolled)

7 7 widespread : répandu oubreak: éruption link: lien map: carte  Hygiene Because of overcrowding, hygiene problems became widespread*. Of particular concern were the regular cholera outbreaks*. John Snow was the first to identify the link* between water supply and cholera, as shown below. Using maps*, Snow found that the number of deaths was highest around water pumps.

8 8 a groundbreaking study : une étude a worrying issue: un problème inquiétant survey: enquête to undertake: entreprendre to lead / led / led: mener finding: résultat (d’une étude)  Poverty In 1902, Charles Booth published a groundbreaking study*. Life and Labour of the People of London threw light on a worrying issue*: over a third of the capital’s population lived in poverty at that time. By pioneering survey* techniques, Charles Booth made a major contribution to social sciences. Similar studies were undertaken* in other cities, particularly the one led* by Seebohm Rowntree in York. His findings* were identical.

9 9 urban sprawl: l’étalement urbain network : réseau underground: (ici) métro to allow: permettre to afford: pouvoir se permettre de obviously: évidemment developer: promoteur advert: publicité  Urban sprawl* From the second half of the 19th century, public transport networks* were improved and extended. The world’s first underground* opened in London in 1843. This allowed* people who could afford* new suburban housing to move out of cities. This trend obviously* encouraged speculation. Developers* used public transport as an argument in their adverts*.

10 10 according to: d’après to pave the way for… : ouvrir la voie à… growth: croissance uneven : inégal to realise: se rendre compte to act: agir to reverse: renverser IV. The Political context According to* André Maurois, the industrial revolution paved the way for* a political revolution. According to many specialists, the 18th and 19 th centuries were characterised by laissez-faire. In a paper published in 1969, Gordon E. Cherry identified three factors that contributed to the development of town planning: (1)the growth* of towns (2)the concentration of urban problems, (3) the uneven* development of industry. Most importantly, he argued that until the early 1830s, the situation in most towns could be referred to as “municipal anarchy”. Despite this, officials realised* they needed to act* in order to reverse* these trends.

11 11 to be concerned with: être concerné / interessé par not so much with…as with… : pas tant par … que par... to cater for…: pourvoir aux besoins de… casualty: victime Welfare State: Etat Providence “ Traditional local government bodies were concerned* not so much* with town improvement and the provision of social amenities* as with the management of properties and the regulation of privileges. The inherited system of poor relief had not been designed to cater* for the casualties* of an industrial urban society, while predominant philosophy of individualism generated a deep suspicion of government intervention.” (Gordon E. Cherry) (Poor relief was the system which provided social security in England From the 16th Century until the Welfare State* was established In the early 1940s.)

12 12 one-way: à sens unique upon: sur practice (noun): pratique to grant: accorder loosely defined: vaguement défini law: loi to apply: appliquer standard: norme numerous: de nombreux a body: (ici) une organisation to tackle: s’attaquer à (un pbm) management: gestion local authority: municipalité ownership: propriété “ […] The process of reform is never a one-way* influence of Ideology upon* practice* or the empirical ‘pressure of facts’ upon ideology, but a continuous interaction between the two, in which both are continually modified.” (Perkin, 1977) “Victorian governments, experimenting in new forms of regulation, […] had granted* to officials […] very general and loosely defined* authorities to make laws* or to judge cases and had permitted officials to develop and apply* their own standards* and interpretations of the public interest* […].” Numerous* ad hoc bodies* were set up in the 19th century to tackle* specific problems. During the 19th century, some services (water & electricity) were ‘nationalised’ and their management* was passed onto local authorities* (municipal ownership*)

13 13 Victorian (adj.) : de la période Victorienne (1837-1901) huge: énorme amount: quantité century: siècle famous: célèbre to focus (on): focaliser housing: logement public health: santé publique V. Early legislation Housing / living conditions in Victorian* cities have generated a huge* amount* of literature in the past couple of centuries*. The works of Charles Dickens are probably the most famous* ones. In England, the first pieces of legislation dealing with cities focused* on housing* and public health*. Step 1: - Entrance should be minimum 5 feet - Yard’s width should be at least 15 feet Steps 2 and 3: - Yard width: at least 15 feet for 8 houses, at least 25 feet for 18 houses - Yard minimum area: 150 square feet Step 4: - standards were raised further and included minimum widths for back lanes

14 14 New community: a new settlement, a new village or town industrialist : industriel (nom) to attempt at: tenter de to provide: fournir, pourvoir VI. Utopian experiments Several industrialists* attempted at* creating successful new communities* from the late 1800s. Robert Owen was the first person to implement such a project. The village he built in New Lanark provided* quality housing for his workers.

15 15 to follow: suivre to feature : (ici) être doté de wide: large row: rangée terrace: rangée de maison (terraced housing) semi-detached house: maison mitoyenne whereas: tandis que neighbourhing: avoisinant to reach: atteindre A number of other projects followed*: Saltaire, built by Sir Titus Salt (1851-1876) Port Sunlight, built by the Lever family. The plan is influenced by continental projects: it features* wide* boulevards lined with* chestnut trees*. Houses are built as cottages, in short rows* (terraces*) or as semi- detached*. Density did not exceed 20 dwellings per hectare whereas* in neighbouring* areas, it could reach* 50 dpa.

16 16 legacy : héritage town planner: urbaniste shorthand writer: sténographe primarily: principalement devised: inventé, imaginé wider: plus large governance: gouvernance to take … into account: prendre … en compte Garden Cities : The legacy* of Ebenezer Howard Howard is often referred to as a town planner*. In fact, he was a shorthand writer*. His book, To-Morrow: a peaceful path to real reform, was originally Published in 1898. It was then published a second time as Garden Cities of To-Morrow in 1902. Today, Garden-cities are primarily* associated with a certain type of planning, architecture and design. At the time when they were devised* however, they reflected a wider* project that also took governance* into account*.

17 17 to sum up : résumer magnet: aimant slum: taudis fog: brouillard drought: sécheresse drainage: assèchement Howard’s project is summed up* in his famous “three magnets*” diagram.

18 18 legacy : héritage town planner: urbaniste shorthand writer: sténographe primarily: principalement devised: inventé, imaginé wider: plus large governance: gouvernance to take … into account: prendre … en compte The land used to build the first Garden Cities was purchased* at agricultural price – in other words, at a very low price. The whole* city was owned* by the municipality: one of the main aspects of Garden Cities is that they aimed at* avoiding* the problems associated with private property. Residents would pay rents* to the municipality rather than to private landlords*. The money raised through rents was reinvested to improve infrastructure and community facilities*.

19 19 self sufficient: auto-suffisante balance: équilibre indefinitely: indéfiniment According to Howard, the population of Garden Cities should not exceed 30.000 inhabitants. His project is based on polycentricity. His cities are self-sufficient* (they provide a balance* of homes and jobs) and are connected by public transport. In theory, Howard’s Social City could grow indefinitely*.

20 20 skill: compétence ward: quartier Howard had no architecture skills*: the plans for his Garden Cities were drawn by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker who were both architects. The diagram below, published in Howard’s book, is only a “suggested plan” for a ward*.

21 21 layout: disposition decrease: réduire usual: habituel council housing estate: ensemble de logements sociaux Raymond Unwin published Nothing gained by overcrowding in 1909.This book proved that it is possible to improve the layout* of houses without having to decrease* densities. Unwin’s plan (right) only used 17% of the land for roads instead of* the usual* 40% in traditional plans (left). His other main contribution to planning practice was the creation of the “close”. This model has been widely used since, particularly in the 1930s when vast council housing estates* were built.

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