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TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY, 1877-1900 America: Past and Present Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY, 1877-1900 America: Past and Present Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY, America: Past and Present Chapter 19

2 A Time of Change  1870 – 1900 –Industrialization –Urbanization –Immigration –Growth of Cities  Resulting Issues? –Families –Society –Politics

3 I got to Kansas City on a Frid'y By Sattidy I larned a thing or two For up to then I didn't have an idy Of whut the modren world was comin' to! I counted twenty gas buggies goin' by theirsel's Almost ev'ry time I tuk a walk. 'Nen I put my ear to a Bell Telephone and a strange womern started in to talk! Ev'rythin's up to date in Kansas City They've gone about as fur as they c'n go! They went and built a skyscraper seven stories high, About as high as a buildin' orta grow. Ev'rythin's like a dream in Kansas City, It's better than a magic lantern show! Y' c'n turn the radiator on whenever you want some heat. With ev'ry kind o' comfort ev'ry house is all complete. You c'n walk to privies in the rain and never wet your feet! They've gone about as fur as they c'n go,

4 The Lure of the City  Symbols of New America –Railroad –Factory –City  Explosive Urban Growth –Cities of  Civil War – 1/6 of Population  1900 – 1/3 of Population  1920 – 1/2 of Population – Cities over 500,000

5 Skyscrapers and Suburbs  Great Chicago Fire – 1871  Electric Elevators –1871  Age of Steel & Glass –Skyscraper –Home Insurance Building  John Root & Louis Sullivan  Chicago, 1885  Streetcars –Suburban Growth

6 Tenements and Overcrowding  Tenements –Working Class –Dumbbell Floor Plan  Tenement Problems – Poor Sanitation – Poor Ventilation – Polluted Water  Urban problems – Poor Public Health – Juvenile Crime

7 Jacob Riis “How the Other Half Lives”

8 Strangers in a New Land  Urban Dwellers – 1900 –Movement from Farms –Immigrants  Unemployment, Shortages, War  Million People  % Population Foreign Born  1880s Eastern, Southern Europe  Resurgent Nativism –New Immigrants  Catholic and Jewish  Assimilation: Marriage, Children –Seek to Limit Immigration

9 Immigration to the United States,

10 Foreign-born Population, 1890

11 Ellis Island

12 Immigrants and the City: Institutions  Immigrant Associations – Jobs and Housing – Insurance  Irish Benevolent Society  Deutsch Amerikanischer Nationalbund  Polish National Alliance  Immigrant Institutions –Churches –Schools –Newspapers

13 Rise of Political Machines  Demand for Urban Service – Political “Boss” – Services for Votes – Corruption  Tammany Hall – New York  Tweed Ring – New York  House that Tweed Built  Bosses Improve Conditions –Power, Water, Sewer –Parks, Playgrounds, Streets –“Honest Graft”

14 Social and Cultural Change  Population Growth – million – million  Life Expectancy –43 Years in 1880 –47 Years in 1900  Health –Canned Food –Louis Pasteur – Germs –Disease – Tuberculosis –Anesthetics & Antiseptics –Behavior Psychology – William James

15 Urban and Rural Population, (in millions)

16 Manners and Mores  Victorian Morality –Queen Victoria –Dictates Dress & Manners –Propriety & Virtue  Religious Revival –Protestantism –Moody & Sankey  Reforms –Mugwumps –Liquor – “WCTU” –Vice – Comstock Law  Family Life

17 Leisure and Entertainment  Leisure at Home –Cards, Music, Yard Games –Ballads, Ragtime (Joplin)  Public Entertainment – Circus (Barnum & Bailey) – Baseball, Football, Basketball  Advent of Evenings –Street Lights –Streetcars

18 Changing Views of Women  "New Women” – Million Working –Growth of Legal Rights  Property & Divorce  Women’s Causes –Voting (Susan B. Anthony) –Suffrage Movements –Equal Pay  A New Openness –Health Issues –Sexuality

19 Changes in Education  Education in 1900 –Compulsory in 39 States & Territories –Illiteracy at 10% –Average Adult 5 Years of Schooling –Kindergarten –Passive – Rote Learning –Teacher Training  Segregation –Separation of Races  Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) –“Separate but Equal" Schools

20 Higher Education  New Colleges –150 from –Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 –Stanford, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt  Women –Study Clubs and Colleges –Vassar, Wellesly... –40% of Students by 1900  Black Colleges –Tuskegee Institute in Alabama –Booker T. Washington – Practical Education –W.E.B. DuBois – Professional Education, Integrated

21 The Stirrings of Reform  Social Darwinism  Hebert Spencer –“Social Selection” –“Survival of the Fittest” –Opposed to Government Action  Reformers –Progress & Poverty  Henry George –Division of Wealth –“Single Tax” – Unearned Wealth –Equalize Wealth

22 Change in Social Thought  Clarence Darrow –Rejects Social Darwinism –Poverty as Root of Crime  Government and the Economy –“New Economics”  Richard T. Ely –“History of Labor in the U.S.”  John Commons –Promote Intervention  Social Gospel – Reform Industrial Society – Christian Standards

23 The Settlement Houses  Famous Houses – Stanton Coit’s Neighborhood Guild  1886 New York – Jane Addams' Hull House  1889 Chicago – Robert A. Woods’ South End House  1892 Boston – Lillian Wald’s Henry Street Settlement  1893 New York  Child Labor – Florence Kelley

24 A Crisis in Social Welfare  Depression of 1893 –Inadequacy of Private Charity  Growth in Social Work –Poverty’s Sources –Government Intervention –National Civic Federation  Human Welfare –State & Federal Government –Government Resistance –“Have” and “Have Not”

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