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Presentation on theme: "TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY,"— Presentation transcript:

America: Past and Present Chapter 19

2 A Time of Change 1870 – 1900 Resulting Issues? Industrialization
Urbanization Immigration Growth of Cities Resulting Issues? Families Society Politics

3 I got to Kansas City on a Frid'y By Sattidy I larned a thing or two For up to then I didn't have an idy Of whut the modren world was comin' to! I counted twenty gas buggies goin' by theirsel's Almost ev'ry time I tuk a walk. 'Nen I put my ear to a Bell Telephone and a strange womern started in to talk! Ev'rythin's up to date in Kansas City They've gone about as fur as they c'n go! They went and built a skyscraper seven stories high, About as high as a buildin' orta grow. Ev'rythin's like a dream in Kansas City, It's better than a magic lantern show! Y' c'n turn the radiator on whenever you want some heat. With ev'ry kind o' comfort ev'ry house is all complete. You c'n walk to privies in the rain and never wet your feet! They've gone about as fur as they c'n go,

4 The Lure of the City Symbols of New America Explosive Urban Growth
Railroad Factory City Explosive Urban Growth Cities of Civil War – 1/6 of Population 1900 – 1/3 of Population 1920 – 1/2 of Population Cities over 500,000

5 Skyscrapers and Suburbs
Great Chicago Fire – 1871 Electric Elevators –1871 Age of Steel & Glass Skyscraper Home Insurance Building John Root & Louis Sullivan Chicago, 1885 Streetcars Suburban Growth

6 Tenements and Overcrowding
Working Class Dumbbell Floor Plan Tenement Problems Poor Sanitation Poor Ventilation Polluted Water Urban problems Poor Public Health Juvenile Crime

7 Jacob Riis “How the Other Half Lives”

8 Strangers in a New Land Urban Dwellers – 1900 Resurgent Nativism
Movement from Farms Immigrants Unemployment, Shortages, War Million People % Population Foreign Born 1880s Eastern, Southern Europe Resurgent Nativism New Immigrants Catholic and Jewish Assimilation: Marriage, Children Seek to Limit Immigration

9 Immigration to the United States, 1870-1900

10 Foreign-born Population, 1890

11 Ellis Island

12 Immigrants and the City: Institutions
Immigrant Associations Jobs and Housing Insurance Irish Benevolent Society Deutsch Amerikanischer Nationalbund Polish National Alliance Immigrant Institutions Churches Schools Newspapers

13 Rise of Political Machines
Demand for Urban Service Political “Boss” Services for Votes Corruption Tammany Hall – New York Tweed Ring – New York House that Tweed Built Bosses Improve Conditions Power, Water, Sewer Parks, Playgrounds, Streets “Honest Graft”

14 Social and Cultural Change 1877-1900
Population Growth million million Life Expectancy 43 Years in 1880 47 Years in 1900 Health Canned Food Louis Pasteur – Germs Disease – Tuberculosis Anesthetics & Antiseptics Behavior Psychology – William James

15 Urban and Rural Population, 1870-1900 (in millions)

16 Manners and Mores Victorian Morality Religious Revival Reforms
Queen Victoria Dictates Dress & Manners Propriety & Virtue Religious Revival Protestantism Moody & Sankey Reforms Mugwumps Liquor – “WCTU” Vice – Comstock Law Family Life

17 Leisure and Entertainment
Leisure at Home Cards, Music, Yard Games Ballads, Ragtime (Joplin) Public Entertainment Circus (Barnum & Bailey) Baseball, Football, Basketball Advent of Evenings Street Lights Streetcars

18 Changing Views of Women
"New Women” Million Working Growth of Legal Rights Property & Divorce Women’s Causes Voting (Susan B. Anthony) Suffrage Movements Equal Pay A New Openness Health Issues Sexuality

19 Changes in Education Education in 1900 Segregation
Compulsory in 39 States & Territories Illiteracy at 10% Average Adult 5 Years of Schooling Kindergarten Passive – Rote Learning Teacher Training Segregation Separation of Races Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “Separate but Equal" Schools

20 Higher Education New Colleges Women Black Colleges 150 from 1880-1900
Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 Stanford, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt Women Study Clubs and Colleges Vassar, Wellesly . . . 40% of Students by 1900 Black Colleges Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Booker T. Washington – Practical Education W.E.B. DuBois – Professional Education, Integrated

21 The Stirrings of Reform
Social Darwinism Hebert Spencer “Social Selection” “Survival of the Fittest” Opposed to Government Action Reformers Progress & Poverty Henry George Division of Wealth “Single Tax” – Unearned Wealth Equalize Wealth

22 Change in Social Thought
Clarence Darrow Rejects Social Darwinism Poverty as Root of Crime Government and the Economy “New Economics” Richard T. Ely “History of Labor in the U.S.” John Commons Promote Intervention Social Gospel Reform Industrial Society Christian Standards

23 The Settlement Houses Famous Houses Child Labor
Stanton Coit’s Neighborhood Guild 1886 New York Jane Addams' Hull House 1889 Chicago Robert A. Woods’ South End House 1892 Boston Lillian Wald’s Henry Street Settlement 1893 New York Child Labor Florence Kelley

24 A Crisis in Social Welfare
Depression of 1893 Inadequacy of Private Charity Growth in Social Work Poverty’s Sources Government Intervention National Civic Federation Human Welfare State & Federal Government Government Resistance “Have” and “Have Not”


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