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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 19 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 19 Product Design Evolution of Product Design

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 19 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 19 Learning objectives To learn about the role of product designers and how product design evolves over time in response to market trends and technological developments. To understand the difference between evolutionary change and revolutionary change. To learn how manufacturing processes have developed over time. To appreciate that society and design are interrelated. To learn about different designers and design movements.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 19 Product designers spend their time developing solutions to design problems. Product designers must meet people’s genuine needs, wants and desires if their products are to be successful. Product design is the process by which designers explore needs and develop a solution within a timescale and budget. Most products develop in an evolutionary way. They slowly change into new forms over time, as designers produce variations on existing designs. However, some products develop in a revolutionary way. An innovation results in a wholly new and original product that can have a big effect on society. What is product design?

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 19 Evolution or revolution? Is each stage an evolution or a revolution in calculator design? Abacus Mechanical calculator Electronic calculator Modern scientific calculator Copyright 1997-2005

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 19 Products are developed in response to two main influences: Market pull A need or desire emerges in society. This prompts designers to search for a solution to this ‘gap in the market’. Technological push New developments in technology or improvements in knowledge stimulate new solutions to existing problems. For example, the increase in RSI (repetitive strain injuries) led to a need for padded mouse mats. For example, new technology has led to mp3 players replacing personal CD players. Evolution of product design

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 19 Market pull often causes products to develop in an evolutionary way. Evolution of product design Consumers create the demand. Products usually evolve gradually from one form to another. The technology driving the product usually exists already. Products created from a market demand are often re-styled versions of older products. A new technology becomes available. This technology offers new ways to solve problems, and creates opportunities to make wholly new products. New products are made which were not possible before the technological advancement. Technological push tends to cause revolutionary development.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 19 Evolution of product design

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 19 Developments in manufacturing processes Industrial revolution. Factories using powered machinery. High tech CAM. Flexible machinery. Increasing automation. Production lines in use. Products made in volume. Electronics invented. Specialist manufacturing equipment. Mass production. Evolution of product design Simple hand tools. One-off products. Steam power. One-off products made easier.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 19 Social impact Technology and society are closely linked. Fashion and trends often inspire changes in product design. For example, artistic movements such as pop art in the 1960s can lead to innovative new designs. Evolution of product design Since fast food restaurants became popular in the early 1980s, many common products have become disposable. Because fashion changes so quickly, we like to be able to change the look of a product without changing the function. For example, changeable casings can be bought for many mobile phones. The Egg chair by Peter Ghyczy.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 19 Design movements On the following slides, you will learn about some famous designers and design movements. Think about what inspired each movement or designer. Was it society, technology or new materials?

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 19 The Arts and Crafts Movement (mid 19 th Century) Some Victorian designers, led by William Morris, rejected the ideas of the industrial revolution. They believed that automation and mass production separated designers from their products, and that the crafts and workmanship of the past were dying out. These designers preferred to design and make products that were original and hand-crafted. The Arts and Crafts Movement produced designs based on forms in nature, such as animals and plants. Making the designs required highly skilled workers, so most of the products were too expensive for the average person to buy. Design movements

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 19 Design movements "Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful." William Morris, 'The Beauty of Life' 1880. ©NTPL/Andreas von Einsiedel

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 19 Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) Mackintosh trained as an architect and interior designer in Glasgow, Scotland. He didn’t like the fussy and over-decorated Victorian style that dominated the early Arts and Craft Movement. Design movements Mackintosh preferred to incorporate geometric shapes into his design. Jewellery based on Mackintosh’s designs Much of his work is based around contrasting monochrome colours and the creative use of empty space. He developed what is known as the ‘Glasgow Style’.

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 19 Bauhaus The Bauhaus was a German art and architecture school which existed from 1919 to 1933. It was founded by Walter Gropius, a German architect. The Bauhaus wanted to design and manufacture products, architecture and print that was functional, cheap and compatible with mass production techniques. They believed strongly in honesty of materials and that a product’s function should be reflected in its aesthetic qualities. New materials and manufacturing processes provided a catalyst for much of their work. Design movements

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 19 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) Mies van der Rohe was the director at the Bauhaus in its final years. He was trained as a stone carver and worked under many successful designers and architects before settling at the Bauhaus. Design movements In 1937, he moved to Chicago where he designed many modern buildings and became a successful and world renowned architect and interior designer. He experimented with materials to create new designs but he held strong to his functional Bauhaus roots. Copyright Bonbon Trading 2005.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 19 James Dyson (1947–) James Dyson is a modern designer and inventor. He designed and developed several products in the 1970s, but he is most famous for his innovative re-design of the vacuum cleaner. Dyson found that the filters in his factory spray room kept clogging up. He began to experiment with cyclone suction technology and then went on to apply what he had learned to vacuum cleaners. James Dyson believes strongly in physical modelling at an early stage of a product’s development – he made over 5000 prototypes before the first DC01 came off the production line. Designers

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 19 The Ballbarrow was one of Dyson’s early designs. Designers In 1983, Dyson launched his first vacuum cleaner – the G-Force. It was priced at $2,000! The DC01 was launched in Britain in 1993. It was the fastest selling vacuum cleaner ever made in the UK. Dyson has continued to develop his designs – his latest vacuum, The Ball, has an 8-cyclone system and rests on a plastic ball, making it more manoeuvrable.

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 19 Design quiz

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 19 Key points © Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 19 Key points Designers respond to the needs of society. Evolutionary changes in product design happen slowly, and are usually driven by market pull. Revolutionary changes in product design are sudden and are usually caused by technological push. Design and society are closely linked – designers respond to changes in society, and cause changes in society with their products. There have been many important design movements, designers and inventors.

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