Presentation on theme: "Tutorial (303), 18 June 2009 Quiz: terms and definitions Typical features of each period J. M. Coetzee "Foe„ Model exam."— Presentation transcript:
Tutorial (303), 18 June 2009 Quiz: terms and definitions Typical features of each period J. M. Coetzee "Foe„ Model exam
Quiz: Terms and definitions 1) Epistolary novel: novel in letters 2) Poetic diction: Words and phrases which were believed to be very poetic 3) Heroic couplet: Two lines of rhymed iambic pentameter 4) Mock epic poem: Uses style and language of epic poem but has a trivial subject 5) Picaresque novel: A novel in episodes 6) Omniscient narrator: A narrator who knows everything, who stands above the story 7) Sublime, the: a quality that creates impression and fear; that inspires admiration and horror at the same time 8) Gothic fiction: concentrates on the irrational, the unconventional plays with sublime emotions; story centres on a young innocent woman who is pursued by a dark hero 9) Historical novel: tries to create vividly what it was like to live in a past period; main characters are fictional 10) Dramatic monologue: a type of poem; a speaker reveals his character at a critical moment in his life; a first person unreliable speaker 11) Outside realism: a type of realism; describes clothes, food, housing, street, … 12) Psychological realism: a type of realism; describes emotions, motivations, thoughts of the characters,.. 13) Apprentice novel: a form of the Victorian novel; describes the development of a character from childhood to maturity 14) Social novel: a form of the Victorian novel; describes the miseries of the working class
Quiz: Terms and definitions 15) Omniscient intrusive narrator: typical narrator of Victorian novel 16) Realism: distinctive feature of the Victorian novel 17) Sensation novel: the predecessor of the modern detective fiction and crime novel 18) Naturalism: a style that developed in France and that concentrates on the negative aspects of life 19) Colonial theme: new theme at the end of 19th century, at the turn of the century 20) Intertextuality: references to other literary texts 21) Stream of consciousness technique: makes you listen to the thought processes of a character; 22) Epiphany: sudden insight into an important aspect to your life, usually triggered by a very trivial incident 23) Dystopia; dystopian novel: a novel that shows a negative vision of the future 24) Hybrid: mixing a great variety of style and culture 25) Meta-fictional references: writers state that their texts are a work of art, that they are created 26) Master-narrative: very famous, widely known literary texts, e.g. Hamlet, the Bible, Robinson Crusoe; … 27) De-constructive revisionist poem: a poem where a master-narrative is re-written in a post-modern style 28) Absurd drama: type of post-modern drama; idea that man has lost all his metaphysical roots, life on earth is meaningless
Typical features of each period 18th (Eighteenth) century “follow nature” expresses general and permanent truths with wit and elegance describes order and harmony, what is general and permanent involves generalisation and idealisation portrays recognisable types, representative characters, average people, characteristic forms, the ordinary and normal but rejects the peculiar, uncommon no split between science and art values clarity and precision and order modelled on classical antiquity literature became a trade
Typical features of each period Romantic period values individual imagination originality individualism interest in emotions interest in nature nature vs civilization the sublime childhood, simple rural people simpler language science vs. art (Gothic fiction, historical novel)
Typical features of each period Victorian period Novel of realism, realist novel Reality effect Outside realism Psychological realism Two forms: apprentice novel and social novel (=condition of England novel): writers attacked social evil, wrote about working class people Novels published in instalments
Typical features of each period 20th (Twentieth) century Modernism: Radical reaction to Victorian norms Protest as regards content and form (different subject matter and style) Wrote about feeling of being alive Lost belief that there was a shared reality, universal truth Subjectivity of experience Nostalgia for lost time, but didn’t believe in this anymore Structure and style of texts different: unchronological = texts don’t follow a linear sequence; seem fragmented; no closure; figures described don’t have a unified personality; limited 3rd person narration; poetry: free verse; ambiguous, polysemic meaning; writers were writing for the elite, texts were elitist; use of intertextuality;
Typical features of each period Postmodernism: can be understood temporally (coming after modernism) or as a particular style; diverse; rejects essentialism playful hybrid does not mourn passing of culture mixture of genres and styles blurring of distinction between high and popular culture mixing of tragedy and comedy often narrated by outsiders debunking of expectations deconstruction of master narratives language often fails as instrument of communication metafictional, self-reflexive gives voice to people who did not have a voice before: feminist or postcolonial writing
J. M. Coetzee "Foe" Consider parallels and contrasts to Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe How is Robinson characterised in Foe? What does he do on the island? What is his attitude towards Friday? How is Friday presented in this novel? What do we get to know about him? What do we never get to hear? And why? (Consider that Coetzee is/was a white South African writer – he lives in Australia now. Could you imagine a reason why he did not want to ‘speak for’ Friday?) What aspects are missing from Foe that played a great role in Robinson Crusoe? What was added that was never mentioned/did not appear in Robinson Crusoe? Why?
J. M. Coetzee "Foe" Who is the narrator of Foe? Consider the structure and narrative technique (point of view) of the story. In what way is it similar to Robinson Crusoe? What is different? What role does the character of Mr Foe (=Defoe) play in the novel? What does he do? And why? What is the relationship of Susan and Friday? Try to find typical features of postmodernism in the text. Try to find typical features of postcolonialism in the text. Try to find typical features of feminism in the text (e.g. traditional and reversed gender roles). The text also comments on the way in which novels are written. Why does Foe change Susan’s story? Why, do you think, is the novel called Foe?
Caryl Churchill: Top Girls Consider the character of Marlene. How is she presented and evaluated in the text? Is she a positive character? There is an all-woman cast. In what way are the various women characters differentiated from one another? Which characters are similar? Compare Marlene, e.g., to her sister or to the other women in the office. Consider, for instance, their ways of behaviour, their ideals, their attitude to traditional gender roles. What about Angie? What is she like? What is Marlene’s attitude towards her? How are the clients treated by the Top Girl agency? The female guests in the first act come from a variety of periods and backgrounds. What do they have in common? Do they really understand each other? Why, do you think, are these historical women introduced at all?
Caryl Churchill: Top Girls What about female solidarity in the play? Think of the structure that is used. How are the various acts and scenes related to one another? What surprise effect is achieved by this arrangement of the scenes? How is your evaluation of Marlene changed by the information you receive at the end? Consider the style of the play. Look at the language Marlene and the other Top Girls use and their way of behaviour and compare this to traditional gender roles. Consider the use of overlapping dialogue: what does this constant interruption show you with regard to the willingness of the characters to listen to one another? Is there a feminist “message” in the play? The play combines realistic action and ‘surreal’ action. Which parts are realistic, which are fantastic/surreal?
Model Exam Describe the characteristic features of the Victorian realist novel and point out whether these elements can be found in Tess of the D’Urbervilles. Describe some of the characteristic features of Romantic poetry The Victorian ideal of femininity and the reaction of various writers to it Name three modernist writers and one work each What is an epistolary novel? Give the name of one writer and text Define the concept of ‘epiphany’ Outline the relation of science and art in the 18th century