Presentation on theme: " Who is Omar Khayyam? About the original version. Edward Fitzgerald and the English version. Ahmed Rami and the Arabic version. Similarities."— Presentation transcript:
Who is Omar Khayyam? About the original version. Edward Fitzgerald and the English version. Ahmed Rami and the Arabic version. Similarities and differences. Reception theory.
o He is Ghiyath al-Din Abu al-Fath: Omar Ibrahim al-Khayam Nishapuri. غياث الدين أبو الفتح ( عمر إبراهيم خيام نيشابوري ) o He was a Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. o He also wrote treatises on: mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, and Islamic theology.
o He is best known for his: Rubaiyat poetry.
Definition of “rubai”: (Persian term) which is a poetry style. It is used to describe the Persian quatrain (a stanza or poem of four lines). The plural form, rubayiat, is used to describe a collection of such quatrains.
The Rubaiyat presents the deep feelings of the poet on the following topics: Life: enjoy your days Death (the passage of time) Love Religion
We will look at: Title. The author. Main ideas. Style of each.
What is the Rubaiyat about? According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the poem: “reveal a man of deep thought, troubled by the questions of the nature of reality and the eternal, the impermanence and uncertainty of life, and man’s relationship to God.”
Poem format: Quatrain (four- line stanza) Meter: Iambic pentameter Rhyme scheme: a-a-b-a OR a-a-a-a
Alliteration: the use of several words together that begin with the same sound or letter in order to make a special effect, especially in poetry. (Longman Dictionary)
Alliteration: A phonetic stylistics device. It aims at imparting a melodic effect to an utterance. The essence lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds.
Alliteration: from the field (stanza 1) The phantom of false (stanza 2) As the cock crew (stanza 3) Soul to solitude (stanza 4)
Assonance: A partial or half rhyme much used in poetic language as an aspect of sound patterning and cohesion. It is the repetition of the vowel sound.
Assonance: Drives Night … And strikes (stanza 1) Of false morning (stanza 2) Puts out, … from the ground (stanza 4) High-…Wine! Wine! Wine (stanza 6)
o The successful choice of words. o Different words giving the same meaning ( echoing ), for example: Wake … sun Stars … night
o The semantic level involves recognition of the stylistic devices in a text. o Here, the main employed devices are metaphors, symbols, and other figures of speech. o All related to the main themes of the poem.
Metaphor: “shaft of light” Symbolism: The rose
o It aims at logical emphasis; an emphasis necessary to fix the attention of the reader on the key words of the utterance.
Repetition of some verbs like (knows), (cried ) Repetition of some articles (the/a) Repetition of active voice (not passive)
Repetition of some expressions like (the tavern, wine, rose) and time references. Heavy use of noun phrased (the sun, the stars, the field, the rose..)
o He is an Egyptian poet, songwriter and translator. o He is best known for writing lyrics for the famous Egyptian singers Umm Kalthoum and Mohammed Abdel Wahab.
o His famous works of translation are those of Shakespeare`s plays and of Omar Khayyam`s rubaiyat. o He was named “ poet of the youth” for his considerable contributions to the Arabic song.
o Ahmed Rami started his translation of the Rubaiyat in o This was a year after he went to Paris to study Persian. o His brother`s death, Mahmoud Rami, in Sudan affected his translation very much. (the feeling of pain and sorrow)
o The successful choice of words. o The shadows of the words (the religious meanings and feelings among the chosen words). o Echoing: سمعت... صوتا
Metaphor: كف القدر.. كأس المنى... كأس العمر Metonymy: يا من يحار الفهم في قدرتك
Personification: فليس في طبع الليالي الأمان يا من يحار الفهم في قدرتك
Repetition of some verbs like ( اغنم ), ( حرت - يحار ) Repetition of words like ( لا – يا – ما - قد ) Repetition of imperative form ( اغنم – هبوا – فامش )
Repetition of some expressions like ( السحر، القلب، رحمتك، كأس ) and time references ( الحاضر، ماضي )
Both the English and the Arabic versions have the same: Both are lyrical poems. Form (poetic style - quatrains) Rhyme scheme. Style with its four levels (similar use) Themes about enjoying our lives, life and death, fate and religion.
The English and the Arabic versions are different in their: understanding of the themes.
Both versions (Arabic and English) are well- received. The strongest evidence for that is their popularity all over the world.
o Charles Eliot Norton wrote that the Rubáiyát : “is the work of a poet inspired by the work of a poet; not a copy, but a reproduction, not a translation, but the redelivery of a poetic inspiration.”
o T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Mark Twain and most of the Victorian writers read the translation and praised it.
o It was highly appreciated for the strength of rhythmical structure, the force of expression, musical modulation, and its mastery of language.