Presentation on theme: " Who is Omar Khayyam? About the original version. Edward Fitzgerald and the English version. Ahmed Rami and the Arabic version. Similarities."— Presentation transcript:
Who is Omar Khayyam? About the original version. Edward Fitzgerald and the English version. Ahmed Rami and the Arabic version. Similarities and differences. Reception theory.
o He is Ghiyath al-Din Abu al-Fath: Omar Ibrahim al-Khayam Nishapuri. غياث الدين أبو الفتح ( عمر إبراهيم خيام نيشابوري ) o He was a Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. o He also wrote treatises on: mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, and Islamic theology.
Definition of “rubai”: (Persian term) which is a poetry style. It is used to describe the Persian quatrain (a stanza or poem of four lines). The plural form, rubayiat, is used to describe a collection of such quatrains.
The Rubaiyat presents the deep feelings of the poet on the following topics: Life: enjoy your days Death (the passage of time) Love Religion
We will look at: Title. The author. Main ideas. Style of each.
What is the Rubaiyat about? According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the poem: “reveal a man of deep thought, troubled by the questions of the nature of reality and the eternal, the impermanence and uncertainty of life, and man’s relationship to God.”
Poem format: Quatrain (four- line stanza) Meter: Iambic pentameter Rhyme scheme: a-a-b-a OR a-a-a-a
Alliteration: the use of several words together that begin with the same sound or letter in order to make a special effect, especially in poetry. (Longman Dictionary)
Alliteration: A phonetic stylistics device. It aims at imparting a melodic effect to an utterance. The essence lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds.
Alliteration: from the field (stanza 1) The phantom of false (stanza 2) As the cock crew (stanza 3) Soul to solitude (stanza 4)
Assonance: A partial or half rhyme much used in poetic language as an aspect of sound patterning and cohesion. It is the repetition of the vowel sound.
Assonance: Drives Night … And strikes (stanza 1) Of false morning (stanza 2) Puts out, … from the ground (stanza 4) High-…Wine! Wine! Wine (stanza 6)
o The successful choice of words. o Different words giving the same meaning ( echoing ), for example: Wake … sun Stars … night
o The semantic level involves recognition of the stylistic devices in a text. o Here, the main employed devices are metaphors, symbols, and other figures of speech. o All related to the main themes of the poem.
o He is an Egyptian poet, songwriter and translator. o He is best known for writing lyrics for the famous Egyptian singers Umm Kalthoum and Mohammed Abdel Wahab.
o His famous works of translation are those of Shakespeare`s plays and of Omar Khayyam`s rubaiyat. o He was named “ poet of the youth” for his considerable contributions to the Arabic song.
o Ahmed Rami started his translation of the Rubaiyat in 1932. o This was a year after he went to Paris to study Persian. o His brother`s death, Mahmoud Rami, in Sudan affected his translation very much. (the feeling of pain and sorrow)
o The successful choice of words. o The shadows of the words (the religious meanings and feelings among the chosen words). o Echoing: سمعت... صوتا
Metaphor: كف القدر.. كأس المنى... كأس العمر Metonymy: يا من يحار الفهم في قدرتك
Personification: فليس في طبع الليالي الأمان يا من يحار الفهم في قدرتك
Repetition of some verbs like ( اغنم ), ( حرت - يحار ) Repetition of words like ( لا – يا – ما - قد ) Repetition of imperative form ( اغنم – هبوا – فامش )
Repetition of some expressions like ( السحر، القلب، رحمتك، كأس ) and time references ( الحاضر، ماضي )
Both the English and the Arabic versions have the same: Both are lyrical poems. Form (poetic style - quatrains) Rhyme scheme. Style with its four levels (similar use) Themes about enjoying our lives, life and death, fate and religion.
The English and the Arabic versions are different in their: understanding of the themes.
Both versions (Arabic and English) are well- received. The strongest evidence for that is their popularity all over the world.
o Charles Eliot Norton wrote that the Rubáiyát : “is the work of a poet inspired by the work of a poet; not a copy, but a reproduction, not a translation, but the redelivery of a poetic inspiration.”
o T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Mark Twain and most of the Victorian writers read the translation and praised it.
o It was highly appreciated for the strength of rhythmical structure, the force of expression, musical modulation, and its mastery of language.