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America up to and in the nineteenth century J. Phay / American Lit / 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "America up to and in the nineteenth century J. Phay / American Lit / 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 America up to and in the nineteenth century J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

2   Historical (Global) Context  Culture and Society in 19 th -century America Question What are the repeating trends and significant ideas in American history? Overview J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

3  Historical (Global) Context The Making of a Nation Rethinking Globalisation J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

4   Spain and Portugal: global naval powers  European rivalries  1492: Columbus sailed the ocean blue  He died refusing to believe he hadn’t found India!  Destruction of the Aztec empire  1524 onwards: French exploration of North American continent Before 1550 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

5   English navigators make attempts to claim land  1587: Roanoke colony  The lost colony  1588: Spanish Armada defeated  Decline of Spanish supremacy 1500 - 1600 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

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7  The English are Sailing  Reasons for colonial enterprise:  Only the eldest son inherits  Poor flooding into the cities  Excess workers  Challenge Spanish domination  Religious differences  Problem: who’ll pay to set up a colony?  Solution: Joint-stock companies J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

8   Virginia company  1607: Jamestown colony  Searched for gold, ignored farming  John Smith: “Work or starve”  Invalided back to England The First English Colonies J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

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10  Failure?  1609-10: The Starving Time  Financial failure  1624: Virginia Company bankrupt  Colony came under royal rule J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

11   Growth of tobacco trade  Virginia settlement flourishes  Indentured servitude to man tobacco plantations  House of Burgesses  The New England colonies  1620: the Mayflower and Plymouth colony 1600 - 1700 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

12   Another accident: supposed to join Jamestown colonists  Lost at sea  Landed near Cape Cod  No charter to rule them  1620: Mayflower compact  Independent rule! Plymouth Colony J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

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14  Thanksgiving  Landed in November = no harvest  44 survived out of 102  How did the colony survive?  Squanto  Alliance with Massasoit Indians  William Bradford  Harvest festival  Declared by Lincoln to be a national holiday J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

15  The 13 Colonies J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

16  The Middle Colonies (1)  Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware  More multicultural  English  Swedes  Dutch  Scots  Irish  French  African slaves  Native American tribes J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

17   Middle ground between the “Puritan North” and the “plantation South”  More tolerant than their neighbours?  Fertile ground  Literally  In terms of mixing of ideas, religions, etc.  Benjamin Franklin: printer and philanthropist The Middle Colonies (2) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

18   Printer  Pennsylvania Gazette  Poor Richard’s Almanac  Philanthropist  Firehouse  Hospital  College of Pennsylvania  Inventor  The lightning experiment  Wood burning stove  Bifocal glasses Benjamin Franklin J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

19   Plantation economy  Tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton  Labour intensive  Indentured servitude to slavery  1661: Virginia legally established slavery  All early colonies had slaves, but more in the Southern colonies because of economic demand! The Southern Colonies J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

20  The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

21   Journey from West Africa to West Indies  Three weeks  “Loose packing”  “Tight packing”  By 1700: tens of thousands of slaves  African diaspora The Middle Passage J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

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23  Slave Codes  Increasing number of slaves = increasing anxiety for their white masters  Slave rebellions  Slave Codes  Slaves are property  Slaves cannot own property  Not allowed to assemble without the presence of a white person  No slave can give testimony against a white person  No slave can be taught to read or write  Slave marriages are not recognised J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

24   Setting the stage for Revolution  Enlightenment ideas in Europe  Newton  John Locke  Jean-Jacques Rousseau  Distance from England  “What is the American?”  Tradition of independent rule  Smugglers  Immigrants who never owed allegiance to England in the first place  The Zenger Trial: freedom of the press! 1700 - 1763 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

25   From ushistory.org: Many events transpired between the years of 1763 and 1776 that served as short-term causes of the Revolution. But the roots had already been firmly planted. In many ways, the American Revolution had been completed before any of the actual fighting began. (“The Beginnings of Revolutionary Thinking”) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Run Up to Revolution

26   England and France at war (again)  France loses her possessions in North America  And develops a desire to humiliate England  England incurs huge debts  And tries to recover by taxing her colonies  American colonists gain fighting experience J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Meanwhile, Back in Europe…

27   “I cannot tell a lie.”  Born 1732 in Virginia  Wealthy plantation owner’s son  Apprenticed to a surveyor  Colonel in the French-Indian War J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 George Washington

28   Disagreement over Ohio settlement  French lost – ceded the Ohio Valley to the British  Britain did not want American colonists to move in  Royal Proclamation of 1763  Colonists are not to cross the Appalachians  To the British: “I’m protecting you.”  To the colonists: “You just want to control my movements and restrict my success.” J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1763 - 1776

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30   Writs of Assistance  British customs officials started exercising their right to search American ships  No courts  British troops stationed in America  To the British: “I’m protecting you, shouldn’t you play your part?”  To the colonists: “You’re sending troops to watch me.”  Boycott of British goods  Stamp Act repealed J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1763 - 1776

31   The Boston Patriots  1766: Second attempt to tax American goods directly  1770: Boston Massacre  Angry mob at customs house  British soldiers fired without orders  5 men killed  All taxes repealed except that on tea J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1763 - 1776

32  I dressed myself in the costume of an Indian, equipped with a small hatchet,... [and] after having painted my face and hands with coal dust in the shop of a blacksmith, I repaired to Griffin's wharf, where the ships lay that contained the tea... We then were ordered by our commander to open the hatches and take out all the chests of tea and throw them overboard, and we immediately proceeded to execute his orders, first cutting and splitting the chests with our tomahawks, so as thoroughly to expose them to the effects of the water. In about three hours from the time we went on board, we had thus broken and thrown overboard every tea chest to be found in the ship.... – Anonymous, "Account of the Boston Tea Party by a Participant," (1773) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1773: Boston Tea Party

33   Series of punishing Acts  Stop sea trade  British gain control over legislative system in Boston  Direct rule over Quebec  1774: British take over Boston  1775: Fighting begins  The American Revolution has started  Fought by local militias!  1776: Declaration of Independence approved by colonies J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1773 - 1776

34   1781: British general Cornwallis surrenders in Virginia  Impact on slavery:  “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”  1775: First anti-slavery society formed  Northern states begin to ban slavery  British army freed slaves J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Impact of the Revolution: Slavery

35   Free to change/add laws  Land laws: No more primogeniture  Separation of church and state  By 1833: even Puritan states no longer used tax dollars to support the church J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Impact of the Revolution: Legislature

36   Men fought in the Revolution  Women became heads of their households  Republican motherhood  To have strong nation, you need enlightened citizens  To have enlightened citizens, you need enlightened mothers  Education + new roles = growing class of outspoken women J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Impact of the Revolution: Gender Norms

37  I long to hear that you have declared an independency. And, by the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. -Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, March 31, 1776 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Abigail Adams

38   The French Revolution  Deep political divide in America  Emergence of two parties:  Federalists  Democratic-Republicans  Election of 1796:  Adams (Northern states)  Thomas Jefferson (Southern states)  Growing North-South divide J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 1980s - 1800

39  Culture and Society of Nineteenth-Century America Economics Politics Gender Race Literature J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

40   A growing nation (literally)  1776: 13 colonies on the Eastern coast  By 1821: 11 new states added  “Growing regional distinctiveness”  1823: Monroe Declaration  A “bold new national identity” (“Social Change and National Development,” ushistory.org) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A New Century

41   Industrialisation  Factory system  Female workers  Concentrated in the northeast  Rise of wage labour  Growth of banking industry  South: crisis in tobacco industry  Eli Whitney’s cotton gin  Cotton industry takes off to feed Northern mills J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A New Century: Economics

42   Fed the industrial revolution  Rail magnates  Transcontinental railroads  Chinese  Irish J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 The Railroads

43   Religious revivals  Emphasis on humans’ ability to change for the better  Emphasis on free will  More public roles for women and African Americans The noise was like the roar of Niagara. The vast sea of human beings seemed to be agitated as if by a storm... Some of the people were singing, others praying, some crying for mercy. A peculiarly strange sensation came over me. My heart beat tumultuously, my knees trembled, my lips quivered, and I felt as though I must fall to the ground. - (“Religious Transformation,” ushistory.org) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A New Century: Religion

44   The politics of language  Webster’s dictionary  Emergence of American writers  Washington Irving  James Fenimor Cooper  American painters  Thomas Cole  John James Audubon  What does it mean to be an American artist? J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A New Century: Arts and Culture

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47   Egalitarian principles  Women’s greater participation in religious life  Women moving slowly into public space  1830s: female schoolteachers outnumber male  Still paid less than men  Still few options  New gender norms? J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A New Century: Gender

48   Growth of industrial cities and towns  Money as a sign of status  Disease, poverty, crime  Infrastructure and social services cannot cope  Haven needed  Cult of the Home  Ideals: True Manhood and True Womanhood J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Changing Ways of Life

49   Binary worldview Gender MenWomen MasculineFeminine Rational, logicalEmotional, irrational, intuitive Harsh world of “business”Domestic world of “the home” Competitive, aggressiveProtective, nurturing Strong – guides and teachers Weak – need guidance Deal with important matters Deal with trivial matters J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

50  Without ignoring accomplishments, or casting a slur upon any of the graces which serve to adorn society, we must look deeper for the acquirements which serve to form our ideal of a perfect woman. The companion of man should be able thoroughly to sympathize with him — her intellect should be as well developed as his. We do not believe in the mental inequality of the sexes; we believe that the man and the woman have each a work to do, for which they are specially qualified, and in which they are called to excel. Though the work is not the same, it is equally noble, and demands an equal exercise of capacity. From Godey's Lady's Book, Vol. LIII, July to December, 1856. J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 True Womanhood

51   Laws that stem from and reinforce inequality?  Divorce laws  Property laws  Right to vote  But apart from law? Systemic Oppression (1) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

52   Not seen as important = overlooked?  “Domestic technology”  Women’s healthcare  Social expectations  Women and marriage  Women and children  Women and other women? Systemic Oppression (2) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

53   Economic  Lower wages for women  Social sentiment keeps women out of “real jobs”  Money seen as a marker of status  Women cannot bring in money, therefore…? Systemic Oppression (3) J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

54   “It is apparent that even the women think of themselves as having less important roles than men.” Widespread Issue J. Phay / American Lit / 2013

55   Growth of cotton industry  Increasing numbers of Abolitionists  First solution: ship slaves back to Africa  African Americans: “But we built this nation too. Why should we leave?”  Increasingly outspoken  Gag Rule  Attacks on Abolitionists J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Changing Social Norms

56   Helped slaves escape to freedom in the North  Operated at night  Harriet Tubman  Born a slave  Escaped  Returned 19 times to help other slaves J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 The Underground Railroad

57   Harriet Beecher Stowe  Serialised, then published as a novel  Portrays in vivid detail the pain and trauma suffered by slaves separated from their families "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war." -Abraham Lincoln to Beecher Stowe J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Uncle Tom’s Cabin

58   1840: Western territories still controlled by countries like Mexico  1845 onwards: “manifest destiny”  Desire for land  Discovery of gold in California  Mission to Christianise the natives  Imperialism  1846: War against Mexico  1847: California secured by the United States J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Westward Ho!

59   North vs South  Should slaveholding be allowed in the new territories?  Balancing act  More states = more say in the federal government  Each new slaveholding state must be balanced with an Abolitionist state  Kansas-Nebraska Act  1860: Abraham Lincoln becomes President  South Carolina secedes J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Regional Conflict

60   From ushistory.org, “A House Divided” The Civil War was a tragedy of unimaginable proportions. For four long and bloody years, Americans were killed at the hands of other Americans. One of every 25 American men perished in the war. Over 640,000 soldiers were killed. Many civilians also died — in numbers often unrecorded. J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Civil War

61  At the battle of Antietam, more Americans were killed than on any other single day in all of American history. On that day, 22,719 soldiers fell to their deaths — four times the number of Americans lost during the D-Day assault on Normandy in WWII. In fact, more American soldiers died in the Civil War than in all other American wars combined. J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Civil War (2)

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64   1865: North wins, war ends  Battles fought predominantly in Southern lands  Death toll  Runaway inflation in the South  Destruction of property  Emotional trauma: Way of life destroyed? J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Aftermath

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67  From ushistory.orh, “Reconstruction”: It was a time of great pain and endless questions. On what terms would the Confederacy be allowed back into the Union? Who would establish the terms, Congress or the President? What was to be the place of freed blacks in the South? Did Abolition mean that black men would now enjoy the same status as white men? What was to be done with the Confederate leaders, who were seen as traitors by many in the North? J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Reconstruction: A Nation Divided

68   New economic boom  Factories built for the war continued operations  1877-1893: American economy doubled in size  Rise of the tycoons  John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil  Andrew Carnegie – Carnegie Steel  J. Pierpont Morgan – banker extraordinaire  The American Dream  Horatio Alger’s dime novels J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Toward the Twentieth Century

69   Edgar Allan Poe  Ralph Waldo Emerson  Henry David Thoreau  Nathaniel Hawthorne  Mark Twain  Charlotte Perkins Gilman  Kate Chopin  Henry James  Edith Wharton J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Rise of American Writers

70  YOU don'tYOU don't know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain't no matter. That book was made by Mr. Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. That is nothing. I never seen anybody but lied one time or another, without it was Aunt Polly, or the widow, or maybe Mary. Aunt Polly -- Tom's Aunt Polly, she is -- and Mary, and the Widow Douglas is all told about in that book, which is mostly a true book, with some stretchers, as I said before. - The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, chapter 1 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A Distinctive Language

71  There even are places where English completely disappears; in America they haven't used it for years. - Professor Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Other Reactions?

72   An ideal or convenient label rather than “objective truth”?  Represents the “spirit” of America at that particular age  Content  Form (language)  E.g., Herman Melville’s Moby Dick  E.g., Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn  E.g., F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 The Great American Novel

73 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 The Awakening and Other Stories Kate Chopin Poetry + short stories Horror + detective “The Fall of the House of Usher” “The Cask of Amontillado” “The Purloined Letter” The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

74 J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Henry James Critic, novelist, short story writer Portrait of a Lady Turn of the Screw Edith Wharton Novelist, interior designer? The Age of Innocence Ethan Frome Ghost Stories

75   Urbanization overtakes the agricultural life  New lifestyles  A new understanding of “family”  New attitudes toward wealth  New attitudes toward education  Compulsory schooling for children  Higher education for women  Print explosion: new ideas, new cosmopolitanism  More time for leisure: baseball J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 A Brave New World

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77   Freedom of the individual  Freedom of the individual versus society  Relationship with the “Old World”  What is the American?  Money, wealth, and their relationship with the spiritual  The American dream J. Phay / American Lit / 2013 Some Important Ideas?


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