2 A Time of Change London becomes most important city in Europe Population of London expands from two million to six millionShift from ownership of land to modern urban economyImpact of industrialismIncrease in wealthEngland becomes world’s foremost imperial powerVictorian people suffered from anxiety, felt displaced in an age of technological advances.
3 Queen Victoria Ruled England from 1837-1901 She had the longest reign in British historyBecame queen at the age of 18She restored the average person’s high opinion of the monarchy after a series of bad leaders1840-Victoria married a German prince, Albert, who became not king, but Prince-consortAfter he died in 1861, she sank into a deep depression and wore black every day for the rest of her life
4 Queen Victoria and the Victorian Temper Exemplifies Victorian qualities: earnestness, moral responsibility, domestic proprietyThe Victorian Period was an age of transitionAn age characterized by energy and high moral purpose
5 Growth of British Empire England grew to become the greatest nation on earthEmpire included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, and IndiaEngland built a very large navy and merchant fleet (for trade and colonization)
6 Imported raw materials such as cotton and silk and exported finished goods to countries around the worldBy the mid-1800s, England was the largest exporter and importer of goods in the world. It was the primary manufacturer of goods and the wealthiest country in the worldBecause of England’s success, they felt it was their duty to bring English values, laws, customs, and religion to the “savage” races around the world
7 The Early Victorian Period In 1830, the first public railway line in the world opened-- the Liverpool and Manchester RailwayBy 1850, railway lines connected England’s major citiesBy 1900 , England had 15,195 lines of railroad and an underground rail system beneath London.The train transformed England’s landscape, supported the growth of commerce, and shrank the distance between cities.
8 Time of Troubles 1830’s and 1840’s UnemploymentPovertyRiotingSlums in large citiesWorking conditions for women and children were terrible
9 The Reform Bill of 1832 Transformed English class structure Extended the right to vote to all males owning propertySecond Reform Bill passed in 1867Extended right to vote to working class
10 The Mid-Victorian Period 1848-1870 A time of prosperityA time of improvementA time of stabilityA time of optimism
11 Industrial Revolution Factory systems emergedThe shift in the English economy moved away from agriculture and toward the production of manufactured goodsGreat Exhibition of 1851-Prince Albert-housed in the Crystal Palace (made of glass and iron) exhibited hydraulic presses, locomotives, machine tools, power looms, power reapers, and steamboat enginesIndustrial Revolution
12 The Crystal PalaceErected to display the exhibits of modern industry and science at the 1851 Great ExhibitionOne of the first buildings constructed according to modern architectural principlesThe building symbolized the triumphs of Victorian industry
13 The British EmpireMany Between 1853 and 1880, large scale immigration to British coloniesIn 1857, Parliament took over the government of India; Queen Victoria became empress of India.Many British people saw the expansion of empire as a moral responsibility.Missionaries spread Christianity in India, Asia, and Africa
14 Religious Beliefs Challenged ScienceThomas Henry Huxley –biologist, “Darwin’s Bulldog”Charles Darwin- The Origin of Species and The Descent of ManHigher CriticismExamination of the Bible as a mere text of historySource studiesGeologyAstronomy
15 Late Victorian Period 1870-1901 Decay of Victorian valuesBritish imperialismBoer WarIrish questionBismarck's Germany became a rival powerUnited States became a rival powerEconomic depression led to mass immigrationSocialism
16 Role of WomenChanging conditions of women’s work created by the Industrial RevolutionThe Factory Acts ( ) – regulations of the conditions of labor in mines and factoriesThe Custody Act (1839) – gave a mother the right to petition the court for access to her minor children and custody of children under seven and later sixteen.The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act – established a civil divorce courtMarried Women’s Property Acts
17 Educational Opportunities for Women First women’s college established in 1848 in London.By the end of Victoria’s reign, women could take degrees at twelve university colleges.
18 Working Conditions for Women Bad working conditions and underemployment drove thousands of women into prostitution.The only occupation at which an unmarried middle-class woman could earn a living and maintain some claim to gentility was that of a governess.
19 Victorian Women and the Home Victorian society was preoccupied with the very nature of women.Protected and enshrined within the home, her role was to create a place of peace where man could take refuge from the difficulties of modern life.
20 Literacy and ReadingBy the end of the century, literacy was almost universal.Compulsory national education required to the age of ten.Due to technological advances, an explosion of things to read (newspapers, periodicals, and books).Growth of the periodicalNovels and short fiction were published in serial form.The reading public expected literature to illuminate social problems.
21 Types of LiteratureFour types of writing were popular during the Victorian Era:RealistNaturalistThe NovelPoetry
22 RealismRealistic, detailed descriptions of everyday life, and of its darker aspectsThemes in Realist writing included families, religion, and social reform
23 NaturalismBased on the theory that actions and events are the results of largely uncontrollable external forcesAuthors chose subjects and themes common to the lower and middle classesAttentive to details, striving for accuracy and authenticity in their descriptions
24 The Victorian NovelThe novel was the dominant form in Victorian literature.Victorian novels seek to represent a variety of classes.Victorian novels are realistic.Major theme is the place of the individual in societyThe protagonist’s search for fulfillment is symbolic of the human condition.
25 For the first time, women were major writers: the Brontes For the first time, women were major writers: the Brontes. Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot.The Victorian novel was a main form of entertainment.
26 Famous Novelists Emily Bronte: Wuthering Heights Charlotte BronteEmily Bronte: Wuthering HeightsCharlotte Bronte: Jane EyreCharles Dickens: A Christmas Carol, Great Expectations, David CopperfieldCharles Dickens
27 Victorian Poetry Poets sought new ways of telling stories in verse Victorian poets show the strong influence of the Romantics, but they can’t sustain the confidence the Romantics felt in the power of the imagination.Victorian poets often rewrite Romantic poems with a sense of belatedness.Dramatic monologue – the idea of creating a lyric poem in the voice of a speaker distinct from the poet is the great achievement of Victorian poetry.
28 Victorian poetry is pictorial; poets use detail to construct visual images that represent the emotion or situation the poem concerns.Conflict between private poetic self and public social role.
29 Famous PoetsAlfred, Lord Tennyson ( ): Most popular Victorian poet. He wrote narrative poemsRobert Browning ( ): raised the dramatic monologue to new heights—making it a vehicle for deep psychological probing and character studyElizabeth Barrett Browning ( ): with Robert, one of literature’s greatest love affairs. Wrote love sonnets valued for their lyric beauty
30 Victorian Drama The theater was flourishing and popular The popularity of theater influenced other genres.George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde transformed British theater with their comic masterpieces.