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Victorian/Edwardian England (1850-1910) McKay 838-850 Palmer 14.74.

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Presentation on theme: "Victorian/Edwardian England (1850-1910) McKay 838-850 Palmer 14.74."— Presentation transcript:

1 Victorian/Edwardian England ( ) McKay Palmer 14.74

2 Great Britain Peterloo Massacre (1819) -Six Acts Passed -Irish Potato Famine begins -Corn Laws repealed (1846) Chartists issue Six Points (1836) Great Reform Bill (1832) Corn Law passed Mines Act (1842) Victorian Era begins (1837)

3 First (Irish) Home Rule bill rejected (1886) Victorian Great Britain Gladstone’s Great Ministry ( ) Second Reform Bill extends vote to workers Forster Education Act University Tests Act (1871) removes religious tests at Oxford and Cambridge Reform Bill of 1832 extends vote to middle class Compulsory school attendance in Great Britain (1876) Disraeli’s Great Ministry Great Exhibition in Crystal Palace (1851) Government of Ireland Act (1920) Easter Uprising in Dublin

4 Victorian Zeitgeist Values Hard work, thrift, sobriety, self-reliance, rugged individualism, family, restraint, separate spheres Samuel Smiles – Wrote “Self Help” – Applied Darwinian ideas to society – Advocated that laws could not alter a person’s behavior, must come from themselves – Low wages would encourage a person to be thrifty, responsible, etc. Extreme self confidence – Viewed British exceptionalism with backdrop of Revolutions of 1848 Religious – GB experienced a religious revival ( ) among middle class 1, 700 new churches built Reformers – Bourgeoisie felt it was “God’s Will” that they teach lower classes to be moral Temperance Movement – 33% of all arrest were for drunkenness Salvation Army (1875) – Offered help on condition that helped must join religion

5 Victorian/Edwardian England ( ) GB was the greatest example of a peaceable parliamentary government Queen Victoria ( ) and her reign mark era of material, literary progress, political stability most prosperous period in British history Unprecedented economic growth Heyday of free trade New fields of expansion  shipbuilding from wood to iron By 1870, Britain’s carrying trade enjoyed a virtual monopoly Br. engineers were building RRs all over the world Br.’s foreign holdings nearly doubled Liberal and conservative parties battled over control of government Disraeli vs. Gladstone

6 1832 Reform Bill extended vote to wealthy middle class 1860s, the lower middle class and working class had grown  wanted suffrage This era saw the realignment of political parties in the House of Commons: Tory Party  Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli Whig Party  Liberal Party under William Gladstone Conservatives vs. Liberals * William Gladstone, Liberal Prime Minister    1886  * Benjamin Disraeli, Conservative Prime Minister  1868 

7 Gladstone and Classic Liberalism( )  William Gladstone (liberal)  Classic Liberal Reformer  Wealthy middle class origins  Known for his populist speeches (whistle stop campaigns)  Foreign Policy  Supported a “Little England” foreign policy  believed Britain should look after her own people at home rather than looking to conquer other lands  Imperialism invites war  Wars are bad for trade, expensive  Supported Irish Home Rule Bill

8  Domestic Policy  “Gladstonianism”  Decrease public spending  Supports a meritocracy  Supported reform bills of civil service, entry into military post  Reluctant to extend suffrage to worker  Supported secret ballot in voting  Protect democracy/nationalism through public education  Promote peace abroad to help reduce spending and taxation, and to help enhance free trade & Low tariffs Gladstone and Classic Liberalism( ) “He speaks to Me as if I was a public meeting” Queen Victoria on Gladstone

9 Disraeli and Conservatism ( ) Disraeli Leader of conservatives & Realpolitik Italian Jewish origins but raised as Anglican “The blank page between the Old and New Testaments A dandy man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of Self. [ [ Foreign Policy – Supports “Greater England” – Promoted British exceptionalism, nationalism & Imperialism – Acquired control of Suez Canal by buying stock from bankrupt Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt – Royal Titles Act in 1876 made Queen Victoria the Empress of India – Against Irish Home Rule – Favored protectionism (high tariffs to protect landed aristocrats)

10 Domestic Policy believed in paternalistic legislation to protect the weak Not supporters of business (or laissez faire) Passed numerous laws protecting workers, public health, foods and drugs, factory conditions Supported Reform Bill of 1867 extended to working class Lord Derby (overall leader of Conservatives) called it a “leap in the dark” Disraeli and Conservatism ( )

11 The Reform Bill of 1867 Disraeli outflanked the liberals – They had proposed a modest extension of who could vote Disraeli 1867 Reform Bill (the Second Reform Bill) – Vote was extended to most workers – extended from 1.5 to 2.5 mil (increase of 88%) – Lord Derby (overall leader of Conservatives) called it a “leap in the dark” – Hoped Conservatives would get credit for inevitable law – Thought suburban middle class would become more conservative (They would but not right away) – Liberals won election of 1868 and put Gladstone in as PM

12 The Irish Question What should Great Britain do with Ireland? Act of Union 1800 – incorporated Ireland into the UK during French Rev Penal Laws – Irish peasants could not own land and were reduced to tenant farmers – Land owned by “absentee landlords” who had no motive to improve it Potato Famine ( ) – Resulted in over 1 million deaths and millions more emigrating to US, Canada, Australia – Classic Liberal laisssez-faire "A family evicted by their landlords" (Source: Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland).

13 Irish Land League Irish peasants were in permanent debt to Protestant landlords Hatred of British rule + growing nationalism united various Irish republicans, constitutionalists with some British M of P Irish Land League (1870s) Led by Irishman Charles Parnell An Protestant Irishman Refused to buy from landlords who evicted Catholic farmers Charles Boycott was 1 st to be ostracized Led bloc in HOP Goals: Fair Rent, Fixity of Tenure and Free Sale Offered votes to party who supported his goals Irish Republican Army Radicals who wanted complete Irish independence from UK

14 Home Rule Gladstone Introduced an Irish Home Rule Bill (1886) & (1893) Would give Ireland a Parliament of its own Did NOT offer Ireland independence! This issue split the Liberal Party Conservative became party of industry, laissez faire, Manchester School and landed wealth Labor party Party of workers, social programs, government intervention

15 Home Rule Home Rule Bill passed 1914 – Enactment put on hold for the duration of WWI In the meantime, Protestants (Ulstermen) in northern Ireland objected to inclusion with Catholic majority – backed by British Conservatives Irish Republic Army (1919) – Conducted guerilla warfare against British army – Led by Michael Collins Easter Rising (1916) – 7 day insurrection aimed at ousting British rule Civil War seemed imminent Government of Ireland Act (1920) – Ireland granted dominion status except for the Ulster region (remained within Britain) Click for clip


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