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The Victorian Age 1832: 1 st Reform Bill; Sir Walter Scott dies 1837: Victoria Becomes Queen 1847: Communist Manifesto 1850: Tennyson succeeds Wordsworth.

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Presentation on theme: "The Victorian Age 1832: 1 st Reform Bill; Sir Walter Scott dies 1837: Victoria Becomes Queen 1847: Communist Manifesto 1850: Tennyson succeeds Wordsworth."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Victorian Age 1832: 1 st Reform Bill; Sir Walter Scott dies 1837: Victoria Becomes Queen 1847: Communist Manifesto 1850: Tennyson succeeds Wordsworth as poet laureate 1851: Great Exhibition 1859: Origin of the Species 1867: 2 nd Reform Bill 1901: Death of Victoria

2 Rise of London Great urbanization London replaces Paris as dominant city of the world Image borrowed from:

3 John Henry Henshall, The Public Bar

4 William Powell Frith, The Railway Station (1862)


6 William May Egley, Omnibus Life in London(1859)

7 Augustus Leopold Egg, Travelling Companions (1862)

8 Picadilly Circus 1893 Image borrowed from:

9 Trafalgar Square

10 Rising Industrialization Images borrowed from:


12 Sir Luke Fildes, Applicants for Admission to a Casual Ward (1874)

13 Eyre Crowe, The Dinner Hour, Wigan (1874)

14 Tremendous Colonial Empire Colonial Office, Whitewall Image borrowed from:

15 England’s Empire Jubilee Clock Tower, Malaysia, 1897 Mutiny Memorial

16 Rise of Nationalist Sentiment National Gallery, Trafalgar Square Natural History Museum

17 Great National Accomplishments Royal Albert Hall Lyceum Theatre Image borrowed from: borrowed from:

18 The National Past The Oxford Museum Image borrowed from:

19 A Modern Nation The United Service 1828 Image borrowed from:

20 Victoria Embankment

21 Bank of England 1844

22 Triumphant Reign of Victoria Victoria Memorial 1911 Albert Memorial

23 1832 Reform Bill Widened the vote Abolished rotten boroughs Redistributed parliamentary representation John Robertson Reid, A Country Cricket Match (1878)

24 1830s-40s: Time of Troubles Sir Hubert von Herkomer, Hard Times (1885) Hungry 40s

25 Chartists 1838: People’s Charter—parliamentary petition First sustained, inclusive working-class movement in modern English history Universal manhood suffrage Secret ballot Payment for members of Parliament Abolition of the property qualification for members Equal electoral districts Annual elections

26 Corn Laws England had maintained high tariffs on grain imports to protect domestic agriculture Abolished high tariffs on grain imports 1845: Crop failures Potato blight

27 Rise of Benthamite Utilitarianism Greatest pleasure to the greatest number Workhouse theory Philosophy of political economy that inspired the Industrial Revolution Influenced by Malthus and Priestley Importance of Jeremy Bentham and James Mill Basis for hedonistic philosophy Carlyle, Ruskin, John Stuart Mill, and others would criticize

28 Age of Improvement—1848-1870 Growth of Empire Rise of prisons Great Exhibition National confidence Frank Holl, Newgate (1878)

29 The Great Exhibition (1851) Designed to showcase England’s accomplishments Emphasized the scientific and artistic developments of the 19c Demonstrated England’s vast global empire and influence Revealed the tremendous optimism and hope of the Victorian Age

30 The Crystal Palace



33 The Factory Acts (1802-78) Increased regulation on labor in mines and factories Reduction to 16-hour day

34 Prominent Emigration Harry Nelson O’Neil, Eastward Ho! (1857)

35 “White Man’s Burden” John Frederick Lewis, The Mid-day Meal, Cairo (1875)

36 Biblical High Criticism Scientifically re-examined facts and figures of the Bible David Roberts, Rome from the Convent of San Onofrio (1861)

37 Darwin’s Origin of the Species (1859) Monumental attack on the social authority of religion Served as more of a confirmation of already- held beliefs Led to prominent debates amongst scientists Forerunner of Thomas Huxley’s work on science

38 John Tyndall Age of the earth Strong influence on Tennyson’s In Memoriam (1850) Challenged biblical accounts about the origin and history of the earth Forced Victorian society to re-think who created the earth and how Suggests that creation was neither complete nor perfect

39 Victorian Decay (1870-1901) England as technological consumer culture Decline in national optimism Imperial aims questioned New challenge of artist Rise of aestheticism Irish question Erskine Nicol, An Irish Emigrant arriving in Liverpool (1871)

40 Aesthetic Movement of 1890s Late-century movement that aimed to celebrate for its own sake Great influence of William Pater, John Ruskin, and French symbolist poets (e.g. Charloes Baudelaire) Oscar Wilde, Lionel Johnson, Aubrey Beardsley Response to the earnestness of Victorian art and society

41 Role of Women Women did not share in reform Became integral to Victorian society Angel in the house model Rise of domesticity Few employment opportunities Richard Redgrave, The Governess

42 Social Reform for Women Custody Act of 1839 Divorce and Matrimonial Act of 1857 Married Women’s Property Acts Increased pressure for women’s education options

43 Women’s Role in Literature Governess novel Angel in the house Fallen Woman Exalted conception of home Increased “social” importance of woman Emily Mary Osborn, Nameless and Faceless (1857)

44 Literacy and Publishing Continued increase in literacy Better printing technology Growth of the periodical More communities of readers Difficult relationship between writer and public readerships

45 Novel as Dominant Form Realism Social realism/social problems Material conditions Class structures Tensions of heroine Novel’s affinity with women and domesticity Sensationalist novel

46 Victorian Poetry Always seems inferior when compared to Romanticism Develop new ways to tell stories—e.g. dramatic monologue Do not share Romantics’ confidence in the imagination Emphasis on visual imagery and sound Seek to present psychology in new way Poetry of mood and character

47 Victorian Non-Fiction Prose Extended function of didactic prose writer Investigation of important social issues –Education –Labor and Utilitarianism –Science –Religion –Empire –Art and Literature –Women –Crime and Prison Lack of Drama until 1890s

48 Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) Great teacher of the age American following— Emerson Prominent crisis of faith—recorded in Sartor Resartus Highly personal and psychological prose style Image borrowed from:

49 Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) Criticizes soulless world Vitalism—sees great energy of world as presence of godhead Critic of laissez-faire and Benthamite Utilitarianism Conservative/pseudo- fascist desire for hero-worship Image borrowed from:

50 Past and Present (1843) Call for heroic leadership Need to replace a “do-nothing Aristocracy” 1110: serious time 1111: Mammon Image borrowed from: Image borrowed from:

51 Past and Present (1843) 1112: Gurth—14c peasant was happy Liberty has led to starvation 1115: leadership must come from within 1116: hope of awakening a British man Addresses captains of Industry re: England’s fate 1117: need for love 1118: awake ye noble workers Work requires organization

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