Presentation on theme: "Domestic Politics in Late Victorian Europe. Politics and Reform The late 19 th and early 20 th centuries saw an increased push for democracy and reform."— Presentation transcript:
Politics and Reform The late 19 th and early 20 th centuries saw an increased push for democracy and reform across much of Europe. Some areas made this transition relatively easily (Britain, France, and Germany), while others faced reactionary problems (Russia and Austria)
Great Britain The Reform Bill of 1867 Expansion of the electorate was a major issue debated by the Conservatives (Tories) and Liberals (the old Whigs). Each side hoped to gain the support of the working classes by giving them the vote. The Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli passed reform in 1867, but the expanded electorate gave the Liberals power in 1868.
Great Britain William Gladstone Liberal Party Leader, served as PM four times. Known as the “Great Ministry” due to Gladstone’s strong religious convictions. His Liberal governments passed reforms in education, workers rights to unionize and strike and the secret ballot.
Great Britain Benjamin Disraeli Served as PM twice. Renewed Tories after the Corn Laws schism. Committed to program of “Tory Democracy”. Expanded government’s role in economy, regulated working conditions, improved sanitation.
Great Britain The Irish Question The question of Irish Home Rule (a separate parliament for Ireland) plagued Gladstone’s later governments. Since Catholic Emancipation in 1829, growing numbers of Catholic MPs demanded home rule. Two home rule bills (1886, 1893) were defeated by Conservatives and anti- home rule Liberals.
Great Britain The Labour Party The growth of labor unions and associations like the Fabian Society gave voice to socialism in Britain. The Labour Party was founded in 1900 by Scotsman Keir Hardie. By 1906, Labour had won 26 seats in parliament and would by the 1920s replace the Liberals as one of the two major British political parties Keir Hardie
The Parliament Act of 1911 The Liberals dominated government from 1906 to 1924. In 1911, a “People’s Budget” was presented, which the Conservative House of Lords failed to pass. King George V (r. 1910-1936) threatened to appoint new Liberal peers, the Lords passed the bill. As a result, Parliament passed a measure restricting the powers of the Lords (could not stop budget and repeated bills passed by the Commons.) King George V
France The Paris Commune With defeat in the Franco- Prussian War and the fall of Napoleon III, radicals attempted to take advantage of the situation in France. Radicals attempted to establish a socialist government in Paris. The government of the Third Republic, under leadership of Adolphe Thiers crushed the radicals, kill 20,000 in the process. Adolphe Thiers
France The Third Republic Had a weak central government centered in the Parliament. Coalition governments were common since no one party could dominate. The Boulanger Affair General George Boulanger attempted to take power when financial scandals broke. He failed, discrediting monarchists.
France The Dreyfus Affair Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, was court-martialed for giving secrets to the Germans. Evidence was found to the contrary, but Dreyfus was convicted as second time. Many, including novelist Emile Zola came to his defense. Dreyfus was pardoned in 1906. Alfred Dreyfus
France Anticlericalism The Dreyfus Affair exposed corruption in army and church. This led to anticlerical campaign, separating Church and state. Socialism Dealing with the monarchists and church, republicans ignored the workers. In 1905, socialists groups joined to form United Socialist Party.
Germany Reich government Reichstag was elected by universal manhood suffrage. Bundesrat was appointed by German princes. Cabinet and chancellor were responsible to Kaiser, not parliament. Economic development German economy soared from 1871 to 1914 based on coal and steel production. German population grew from 41 million in 1871 to 65 million by 1914.
Germany Wilhelm II (r. 1888-1918) Wilhelm succeeded his father Frederick who was Kaiser for only 99 days. He dismissed Bismarck in 1890 to consolidate his own rule. He allowed anti-socialist legislation to expire, giving the Social Democrats greater power. By 1912, the Social Democrats were the largest single party in the Reichstag.
Italy Economic and Political Unrest There were revolts and strikes throughout Italy in the 1890s. King Humbert I was assassinated by an anarchist in 1900, he was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-1946). Despite the repressive policies of PL Giovanni Giolitti, voting was gradually expanded to all men by 1912. During this period, Italy had the fasting growing economy in Europe.
Spain Revolution and Restoration Discontent across Spain in 1868 brought revolution and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. Isabella son, Alfonso XII led a relatively conservative government. Discontent in the colonies and problems of industrialization were exacerbated by defeat in the Spanish American War (in which Spain lost Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
Austria-Hungary Nationalist Discontent Extension of the vote in Austria did little to quell the discontent of the national minorities of the Empire. In Hungary, the parliament began a process of Magyarization, seeking national minorities to accept Hungarian language and culture. Slovaks, Romanians, Croats and the other South Slavs resented this.
Russia Alexander II (r. 1855-1881) Under Alexander II, limited reforms were put in place. He was assassinated by terrorists. Alexander III (r. 1881-1894) He ruled Russia with a iron hand. Using his secret police, he crushed dissent in all forms. Tsar Alexander III
Russia Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) He was determined to continue his father’s autocratic rule. Under him, Russian industrialization pushed forward, but most of the pop. was still rural and poor. Radicals gained greater following, especially the socialists.
Russia Russo-Japanese War The Japanese and Russians came into conflict over Manchuria and Korea. In Feb. 1904, the Japanese attacked the Russian Fleet a Port Arthur. The Japanese defeated the Russian fleet at the battles of Mukden and Tsushima in 1905. The Treaty of Portsmouth ended the war, humiliating Russia.
Russia Revolution of 1905 Russia’s defeat in the war discredited the tsarist regime. In Jan. 1905, troops shoot at peaceful demonstrators in St. Petersburg calling for reforms, this became known as Bloody Sunday. Strikes swept the country and a naval mutiny occurred on the battleship Potemkin. Revolution was quelled with the issuing of the October Manifesto by Nicholas II, promising reforms.