2The Victorian Age Critical Realism in England Ⅰ.Historical Background1. The Progress of Reform(革命进程)2. Chartism (宪章运动)
31. The Progress of ReformA new era really began with the passage of the Reform Bill in 1832 and closed at the end of the Boer War in 1902.The Mid-Victorian period was considered as em- -bracing the year 1855 to 1879 from the ascen- -dancy of Palmerston to the great economic de- -pression.During this period of time, many great changes took place in administration, e.g. Whigs and To- -ries, kept office in the quick turn.The most important immediate legislative acco- -mplishments of the reformed parliament was the emancipation of slaves in British dominions.
42. Chartism1. During the years after 1832, the major contradi- -ction in the political arena became more defini--tely between labor and capitals. The years from 1832 to the early 50’s saw important series of events known as the Chartist Movement.2. Lenin said:" It is the first broad, really mass, pol--itically formed, proletarian revolutionary move- -ment ” Chartist Movement sprang from “the so- -cial degradation produced by the unregulated growth of industry and by the subordination of human to commercial interests.”
5Ⅱ.LiteratureThe critical realism of the 19th century flourished in the forties and in the beginning of fifties.The realists first and foremost set themselves the task of criticizing capitalist society from a democratic viewpoint and delineated the crying contradictions of bourgeois re- -ality.The greatness of the English realists lies not only in their satirical portrayal of bourgeoisie and in the exposure of the greed and hypocrisy of the ruling classes, but also in their profound humanism which is revealed in their sym- -pathy for the laboring people.In the fifties and sixties the realistic novel enters a stage of decline.The Chartist writers introduced a new theme into English literature—the struggle of the proletariat for its right.The second half of the 19th century in England produced a number of outstanding poets such as Tennyson.
6Ⅲ.the main writers 1. Charles Dickens (1812—1870) 2. Alfred Tennyson (1809—1892)3. Robert Browning (1812—1889)4. Matthew Arnold (1822—1888)
7Charles Dickens (1812—1870)He is the greatest and most famous realistic novelist.(Ⅰ) the brief of life(Ⅱ) the main works
8(Ⅰ) the brief of lifeborn at Landport, a district of the city of Portsmouthleft to look after himself with the help of a relativebegan working as a lawyer’s office boypublished the first series of his storiesmarried daughter of the owner of the magazinerisen as the position of popularity unequalled inEnglandbegan a weekly paperfirst trip to Americareturned to the Continentbegan a weekly family magazinesailed for Americadied
9(Ⅱ) the main worksWith striking force and truthfulness, he creates pictures of bourgeois civilization, describing the misery and suffe--rings of common people.His works comprised the novel, the medium-length novel, short story, essay, feature article and travels.(1) “The Posthumous Papers of Pickwick Club”(匹克威克外传)—the first published novel(2) “Oilver Twist”(雾都孤儿)(3) “The Old Curiosity Shop”(老古玩店)(4) “Dombey and Son”(董贝父子)(5) “David Copperfield”(大卫科波菲尔)(6) “Bleak House”(荒凉山庄)(7) “A Tale of Two Cities”(双城记)(8) “Great Expectation”(远大前程)
10Alfred Tennyson (1809—1892)When he was 12 years old he wrote 6000 lines epic.When he was 18 years old he published the collection of poems “Poems by Two Brothers” with his brother.He was one of the main poets during the age of Victorian and conferred upon “Poet Laureate” in 1850.Main Works:(1) “Poems by Two Brothers”(两兄弟诗集)(2) “The Princess”(公主)(3) “In Memoriam A.H.H.”(悼念)(4) “Maud”(毛黛)(5) “Enoch Arden”(伊诺克阿登)(6) “Idylls of the King”(国王之歌)
11Robert Browning (1812—1889)In the Victorian age Browning and Tennyson enj--oyed equal the fame.He is opposite in almost every respect but fame and length of years.His genius was pre-eminently dramatic; his inter- -est lay not in universal law, but in individual pas- -sion.He was a prolific writer.Main Works:1. poetic drama2.poem collection
12Main Works:1. poetic drama(1) “Paracelsus”(巴拉塞尔士)(2) “Strafford”(斯特拉福德)(3) “Pippa Passes”(皮帕走过了)2.poem collection(1) “Dramatic Lyric”(戏剧抒情诗)(2) “Dramatic Romances and Lyrics”(戏剧传奇及抒情诗)(3) “Men and Women”(男男女女)(4) “Dramatic personae”(剧中人物)(5) “The Ring and the Book”(指环与书)
13Matthew Arnold (1822—1888)In the year of 1849 he published the first poem collection named “The Strayed Reveller”.He was the main writer in Victorian age.He created the poem mainly in the 1850’s. From 1860 he began to write the prose and most of the works were literature comments and social com--ments.Main Works:1. poem collection2.criticism works
14Main Works:1. poem collection(1) “Poems”(诗集)(2) “Poems, Second Series”(诗歌二集)(3) “New Poems”(新诗集)2.criticism works(1) “Essays Criticism”(评论集)(2) “Culture and Anarchy”(文化与无政府)(3) “Literature and Dogma”(文学与教条)