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Britain. Brief Move Toward Conservatism 1815-1820 Kept the Corn Laws Suspended the right to peaceful assembly Suspended the right to habeas corpus Passed.

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Presentation on theme: "Britain. Brief Move Toward Conservatism 1815-1820 Kept the Corn Laws Suspended the right to peaceful assembly Suspended the right to habeas corpus Passed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Britain

2 Brief Move Toward Conservatism Kept the Corn Laws Suspended the right to peaceful assembly Suspended the right to habeas corpus Passed the Six Acts –Placed controls on the press –Outlawed almost all mass meetings (after the Battle of Peterloo)

3 Liberalism in Britain – favored by both Conservative and Whig parties Emphasis on rights and liberties of individuals including equal legal rights for all Believed humans had the ability to govern themselves Supported freedom of the press and freedom of assembly Started with the idea of property owners voting and slowly moved toward supporting universal male suffrage Wanted a guarantee of the right to own private property Kept the government out of the economy (laissez-faire) Usually supported by the middle/business class

4 Conservative reforms in the 1820s Promoted free trade by reducing tariffs and loosening the Navigation Acts Gave Catholics full legal rights Created a professional police force (named the “Bobbies” after Tory leader Robert Peel) BUT THE CONSERVATIVES Could not repeal the Corn Laws Could not reform representation in the House of Commons

5 Whig’s Reform Bill of 1832 Passed amidst the threat of rebellion throughout the country and the threat of increasing the House of Lords by the King William IV (who was worried about the rebellions) “Comfortable” (middle-middle) class gets the vote Representation in Parliament is reformed to better reflect the growing importance of the industrialized urban areas House of Commons gains power

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7 Additional Pre-Victorian Reforms 1833 – Slavery abolished (Whig) 1833 – Factory Act of 1833 (Conservative and Whig) 1834 – Poor Laws gave assistance to the poor as long as they lived in poor houses (Whig) 1835 – modernized local government (Whig)

8 Changes to Political Parties Conservative Party formed from Tories, joined by some Whigs in 1834 – both “Conservative” and “Tory” are used to describe the party Liberal Party formed from supporters of the Reform Bill of 1832 plus some industrialists and Liberal Tories, it gained in importance after the 1850s while the Whigs declined and died out Two parties traded off holding power from 1832 to World War I

9 Reign of Queen Victoria

10 Victorian Reforms 1842 – Mines Act barred women and small boys from the mines. (Conservative) 1846 – Repeal of the Corn Laws (Whigs with some high ranking Conservative support including Robert Peel) 1847 – Ten Hours Act limited the workday for women and children in the textile industry to 10 hours (Conservative)

11 SUMMARY OF Tories and Whigs (Conservatives and Liberals) Party of the Aristocracy Scared by the French Revolution (suspended habeas corpus, controlled the press w/Six Acts, practically ended right to assembly) Want to keep making $ after the end of the Continental System (which had helped the sales of domestic corn grown on land they owned) – Corn Laws, 1815 Led by aristocrats but more friendly to the middle class Made representation in the Commons more reflective of population density, allowed the solid middle class to vote – Reform Bill of 1832 Supported the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 (joined by Tory leader Robert Peel) Limited the work day with the Ten Hours Act

12 Victorian Accomplishments Britain at height of industrialization (Crystal Palace) Wages for workers climbing, but Marx & Engels write the Communist Manifesto

13 Victorian Accomplishments British Empire spans the world

14 Victorian Accomplishments Incredible railroad building

15 Victorian Accomplishments Elaborate Architecture

16 Victorian Accomplishments Electric lights on London streets Darwin’s theory of natural selection Invention of photography

17 Victorian Accomplishments Attempts to make education available to all children in England (similar to Prussia)

18 Victorian Morals Stressed hard work and discipline stressed (If you fell on hard times, it was your own fault) Emphasis on public and private responsibility Devotion to family life

19 Victorian Morals Emphasis on Christian morality –Drunkenness and gambling denounced –Sexual purity and fidelity celebrated –Dressed conservatively

20 Augustus Egg’s Untitled Triptych Eventually titled: Past and Present 1-3

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24 When these paintings were exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1858, they had no listed title and, indeed, remained without title at Egg’s premature death in Instead, the following subtitle was affixed: 'August 4th-Have just heard that B-has been dead more than a fortnight, so his poor children have now lost both parents. I hear she was seen on Friday last near the Strand, evidently without a place to lay her head. What a fall hers has been.’

25 Victorian Reality Role of women in society diminished (less work, less influence) Many people acted morally, but lived immorally (high rates of prostitution, illegal gambling) Britain ruled a large empire, but subjugated the people they ruled

26 Ireland

27 Conflict with Britain Irish mistreated by British landlords Irish Catholics vs. British Protestants Horrible poverty High population growth Completely dependent on the potato Potato crop problems started in 1840, peaked with failed crops in 1845, 1846 and 1848 British government provided little to no relief

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32 Greece

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