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THE VICTORIAN AGE Queen Victoria came to the throne in …… but according to historians The Victorian Age was… …from 1832… …to 1901 when… …the First Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "THE VICTORIAN AGE Queen Victoria came to the throne in …… but according to historians The Victorian Age was… …from 1832… …to 1901 when… …the First Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE VICTORIAN AGE Queen Victoria came to the throne in …… but according to historians The Victorian Age was… …from 1832… …to 1901 when… …the First Reform Act was passed… It gave the right to vote… …to a large part of the middle class when… …Queen Victoria died. 1837

2 Queen Victoria was loved especially by the middle class Moral behaviour She reigned constitutionally She avoided the revolutions that spread in Europe in 1848

3 The main political parties were the LIBERALSthe CONSERVATIVES They managed to have the CORN LAWS repealed There was also… CHARTISM An important …………. class movement… …which called for social reforms and the extension of the…………… working right to vote

4 A symbol The Great Exhibition It was a complex and ……………… period. contradictory Reforms Imperial expansion Industrialism New services for the towns water gas lighting places of entertainment hospitals museums police stations prisons BUT… Material progress

5 There was still a lot of poverty. The misery of industrialisation Poor people lived in overcrowded ……... slums disease crime high death rate terrible working conditions pollution

6 VICTORIAN VALUES They were mainly…… …MIDDLE-CLASS values

7 VICTORIAN VALUES HARD WORK DUTY

8 VICTORIAN VALUES RESPECTABILITY A mixture of morality, conformity and ……..…… hypocrisy good manners going to church regularly charitable activity Having a nice house with servants and a carriage

9 VICTORIAN VALUES PHILANTROPY addressed to… fallen women drunken menstray children CHARITY

10 VICTORIAN VALUES FAMILY was… …patriarchal. The husband was… …the authority. The wife looked after…. … the house … children

11 VICTORIAN VALUES WOMEN had to be… Single women with a child were emarginated No nudity in art CHASTE CHASTITY PRUDERY Sexuality was repressed

12 VICTORIAN VALUES idea of racial ……………. ‘The sun never sets on the British Empire’ PATRIOTISM superiority huge empire Asia Africa Central America Oceania India The jewel in the crown ‘the white man’s burden’ Colonisation was regarded as a ……….. mission

13 RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL MOVEMENTS EVANGELICALISM It was a complex and ……………… period. contradictory Sunday observance Strict code of behaviour Humanitarian causes UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham Only what is ……….. is important for… A materialistic theory …the …………. happiness of society. useful material

14 RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL MOVEMENTS EMPIRICISM It was a complex and ……………… period. contradictory EDUCATION UTILITARIANISM was a reaction against Law should also help men to develop their talents and personalities ART He gave great importance to… John Stuart Mill Progress came from mental energy THEREFORE SOCIAL REFORMS

15 RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL MOVEMENTS DARWINISM It was a complex and ……………… period. contradictory Charles Darwin It shook moral and religious certainties. A scientific theory He discarded the idea of ……….. given by the ………. BibleCreation Like other animals, man is the result of a process of …………... In the fight for life only the fittest survive. THEREFORE evolution

16 THE MOST POPULAR LITERARY GENRE IN THE VICTORIAN AGE WAS… THE NOVEL WHY? Because the……………… read a lot of literature. middle classes They borrowed books from circulating libraries and read periodicals. Many novels were published in instalments in periodicals. Readers could influence the writer! THEREFORE Novels were read aloud in the family. Many readers were ………. who spent more time at home. women Many writers were also women but had to use a male pseudonym

17 THE VICTORIAN NOVEL The writers felt they had a moral and social responsibility. They showed the evils of society… Their criticism was not ………. … and denounced them. AIMS They only made readers aware of social injustices. BUT… radical They didn’t incite the poor to rebel.

18 THE VICTORIAN NOVEL ……………. narrator The setting was usually the….. The plot was long and complex. FEATURES In the final chapter there were reward and…………… rigid barrier between right and wrong symbol of the evils of industrialism Omniscient city Writers concentrated on the creation of…………… characters punishment

19 He was mainly a storyteller. He denounced the spiritual and material corruption of ………………… CHARLES DICKENS industrialism He became increasingly critical but he never incited the poor to rebel. He only made readers aware of social injustices …. … to stimulate the common sense of all classes to relieve suffering. His plots were well-planned but at times artificial and sentimental. The setting was the industrial town, usually London. FEATURES

20 He created …………………. of middle and lower class people. CHARLES DICKENS CARICATURES He ………… their social characteristics, vanity and ambition. He was always on the side of… ONE OF DICKENS’S BEST QUALITIES WAS HIS HUMOUR mocked the poor the outcast the working class children Often wiser than adults and moral models for adults CHARACTERS

21 It denounces the gap between the… It criticises… CHARLES DICKENS HARD TIMES 1854 = rich and poor factory owners and factory workers MATERIALISMUTILITARIANISM It is set in an imaginary industrial town called ………………. COKETOWN INDUSTRIALISM

22 It criticises… CHARLES DICKENS embodied by… who treats his workers like machines teaching them only FACTS… HARD TIMES 1854 UTILITARIANISM Mr Bounderby Mr Gradgrind who treats his students like machines … neglecting their imagination and their personality

23 This passage criticises CHARLES DICKENS EDUCATION HARD TIMES 1854 Mr Gradgrind’s utilitarian conception of A MAN OF REALITIES

24 CHARLES DICKENS The pupils are described as i.e. empty jugs into which liquid is poured HARD TIMES 1854 pitchers, That childhood and imagination are ………… of education. A MAN OF REALITIES suggesting that Gradgrind considers them empty containers to be filled with…………………….. Gradgrind himself is described as a ………… loaded with facts ready to kill his pupils’ imagination Here the metaphor is military suggesting facts and figures ‘enemies’ cannon


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