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Imperialism Industrial Revolution Victorian Era Revolution, Reaction and Reform 1750 – 1914 ISMS Lots of layers while “competing classes” VINI Reaction.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Industrial Revolution Victorian Era Revolution, Reaction and Reform 1750 – 1914 ISMS Lots of layers while “competing classes” VINI Reaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism Industrial Revolution Victorian Era Revolution, Reaction and Reform 1750 – 1914 ISMS Lots of layers while “competing classes” VINI Reaction to Modernization Tentacles of Technology North South Divide

2 Isms s Absolutism, Nationalism s Capitalism (Adam Smith actually from 1700s) s Proto-Industrialism and Industrialism s Liberalism, Radicalism, Conservatism s Antithesis to Marxism is revisionism –Idea that reform is better than revolution s Marxism, Socialism, Communism –“From each according to his abilities; to each according to his needs” s Colonialism, imperialism, new imperialism (Post 1880) s Consumerism s Feminism s Victorian Reaction –Evangelicalism –Social Darwinism

3 Transition s The Scientific Revolution –prior advances, Copernicus, Galileo; Newton’s rational, harmonious, predictable universe –the “laws” of nature –faith in scientific method s The Enlightenment in Europe and America –the “laws” of society; Hobbes, Locke –the Philosophes –faith in reason and progress (Voltaire) –the “Enlightened Despots” s American, French, Haitian, Mexican Revolutions –contrasting causes and stages –launch of global expectations of national sovereignty, self-government, liberty, justice, equality

4 Economic s Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in England and Western Europe –Agricultural Revolution and Proto- Industrialization Prelude to Industrial Revolution s Steam s factory and mine machines s Railroads s industrial cities s social consequences and attempts to resolve them called the social question

5 European nation building s England became an industrial, urban culture s tens of thousands were guillotined in France s Napoleon's Empire—the greatest since Rome— rose and fell s revolution swept the capitals of Europe. s Russian serfs were freed s Italy and Germany were created from a loose collection of city-states s European powers divided and conquered Africa s Darwin, Marx, Freud

6 Russia, Ottoman, Japan and China s Czars –Trans Siberian Railroad –Attempts at industrialization lead to Russian Revolution of 1905 and 1917 Peasants freed of Obruk but s Ottoman rise of military and Janissaries causes eventual disintegration of empire s Take over by daiymos eventual creation of zaibatzu s Conflict with westernization

7 Japanese territorial expansion was significant just prior to World War I

8 Latin America s Latin American wars of independence –dominance of the military ( Caudillos) –abiding economic, social, and racial inequalities s Periods of consolidation s Mexico –Father Miguel Hidalgo leads to the later populist movements of were Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa s Brazil –Jao and later Pedro II s Argentina –Jose de San Martin s Venezuela –Creole-led junta –Bolivar’s Gran Columbia

9 Impact of the rise of the west s The new Western imperialism in Africa and Asia s multiple motives and causes s consequences for both the colonized and the colonizers s Direct and Indirect Rule s Sun never sets…. s The “Raj” pre-Sepoy Revolt which becomes the jewel in the crown s Rise of the Zulu with Shaka Zulu s Migration of Zulu, Boers, and British

10 Open Door policy and reaction to west s Chinese resistance to the West –the Opium War –anti-foreign rebellions –the Chinese Republican Revolution of 1911 s Japan –Treaty of Kanagawa (Perry’s black ships) –the Meiji “revolution” Restoration New role of the military Desire for industrialization and “need for steel” –economic and military modernization –rise to world power s crushing defeats of Manchu China and Tsarist Russia

11 Enculturation s Settler societies became carriers of culture as the indigenous cultures were not strong enough to resist –European Settlements in Canada, Australia and New Zealand s World wide population growth s Enclosure movement and other technological innovations cause movement and change –Steam engine

12 Reflection of culture s Art, in contradiction to the growth of science, seemed to glorify the irrational. s Beginning with romanticism, artists sought to capture emotion rather than material reality. s By 1900, painters began to portray objects abstractly. Composers experimented with atonal forms. s Western art began to pull the culture of other civilizations into the maelstrom of creativity. s Differences in approach between scientists and artists created a dichotomy in Western culture that was reflected in the institutionalization of science and the arts. s By the end of the 19th century, Western culture failed to resolve the chasm between the rational and the irrational.

13 4 th Estate s Spread of culture s Media influenced foreign policy –Spanish American War –Crimean War –Taiping Rebellion –Zulu Wars s Emile Zola –French journalist –Dreyfus Affair Revealed degree of anti-semitism Fueled the fire of ethnocentrism coupled with nationalism

14 Medical Advancements s Quinine –Conquest of Africa –Panama Canal –Suez Canal s Surgeries s Freud and Psychoanalysis

15 Causes and Impacts of IR s Once the middle classes acquire universal manhood suffrage then the social question can be addressed s Repressed classes s Population increases beginning about 1730 related to agriculture revolution

16 NIMS s Nationalism and development of nation- states s Imperialism caused by the competition for raw materials and markets of the late Industrial Revolution s Militarism and growth of national armies as empires grew and had to protect colonial possessions s System of Alliances develop that create a climate for war –Remained throughout the 20 th century s Triple Entente s Triple Alliance

17 Geopolitics Balance of Power s Congress of Vienna –Post Napoleonic Wars –Establish territorial boundaries –Establish a balance of power s Concert of Europe –Maintain a balance of power –React to Nationalism s Unification of Italy (Resorimento, Red Shirts, Garibaldi, Cavour) s Unification of Germany (Bismark, Zollverin, Junkers) s Decline of the Ottoman Empire s Decline of the British Empire s 2 nd phase of Industrial Revolution –Steele, oil and chemicals –Transportation and communication

18 Victorian Era s Sun never sets on the British Empire s Cultural attitudes s Rigid structure to prevent class mobility s Rise in Middle Class s Consumer culture s Entertainment, parks, art on rise s Conflict more between middle class and lower class because upper class kept out anyone else s Women’s role began to change s Rise in sports

19 Capitalism and Industrialization s Adam Smith (New Economic Theory) –Free Trade –Invisible Hand –Supply and demand s Pre-Conditions for Industrialization –Land, Labor & Capital –Inventions - Spinning Jenny, Water Frame –Increased reliance on Coal s Industrial Revolution –Textile Industry –Steam and Electricity –Effects on Social Classes Middle Class benefits Poor working conditions

20 Socialism, Marxism and Communism s Socialism –Economic Competition is inherently Unfair –Popular in France s Marxism –More radical form of Socialism –Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Class Struggle s Communism –Same as Marxism only add world wide revolutionary theories of Lenin

21 Push – Pull of Conservatism and Liberalism s Chartism in England s Universal Manhood Suffage on rise s Revolutions of 1848 s Meijii Revolution following 1853 Comd. Perry and black ships –Treaty of Kanagawa s Civil War in US s Crimean War (Pan Slavism)

22 Imperialism s Causes –Economic Factors Need for Raw Materials Opening Potential Markets –Military Factors New Weapons Coal Sources –Social Factors Population Growth Making Fortunes –Cultural Factors Conquer “Inferior” people Social Darwinism

23 Imperialist’s World s Great Britain (Zulu Wars, Sepoy Revolt) –India –China/ SE Asia s America as an Imperial Power –Hawaii –Pacific Islands –China s Scramble for Africa –Africa Divided up between Imperial Powers Berlin Conference –Little of original governments survive s Japan resists Imperial take over

24 Imperialism s Types of political rule- –France-direct rule –England-indirect rule, protectorates –Spheres of influence – division of an area with some military control –Mandates – post World War I –Protectorate – local leader controlled by an outside European, basically a puppet –Mandates – legalized Imperialism

25 World before WWI

26 South and East Asia

27 Settler Colonies vs. tropical dependencies s In true colonies small numbers of whites governed large populations of indigenous peoples s resulted in permanent exploitation by Europeans s in contested settler colonies, struggles between white settlers and indigenous peoples often resulted in balance s South Africa was the earliest contested settler colony s struggle with Zulus, British resolved in decolonization of Boers, supremacy over South African indigenous peoples, Bantus s New Zealand Maoris suffered from entry of whites, but learned use of laws to gain balance of power, rights over land and resources s similar results in Hawaii.

28 Decline of Qing China s Opium war –Opium used to end trade deficit between China and Great Britain –First Opium War Treaty of Nanking - 5 ports open, Hong Kong s Taiping Rebellion –Civil War in China –Many died s Dowager Empress Cixi –Conservative, Oppressive, leader of Qing China –Controlled Nephew on the throne, when he tried to reform she had him removed s Boxer Rebellion –Rebellion against foreigners in China –Not successful –Showed that foreign powers must rescue China (sphere of influence)

29 Meji Restoration s Japanese Modernization –New Constitution based on US –Parliament formed (Diet) –Mostly an Oligarchy s Zaibatsu –State Sponsored businesses –Industry and Private Enterprise –Poor Working Conditions for Poor s Increased Urbanization s Beginnings of Japanese expansionism

30 Japanese expansionism s Sino-Japanese War –Japan wants part of China Trade –Takes over Korea and trading port –Used U.S Open Door Policy to justify actions s Russo -Japanese War –Caused by competition over Manchuria –Surprise Attack by Japanese on Russian positions –Japan Wins s Begins to warn World of Japans Imperial Leanings s Asia for the Asians

31 Latin American rebuilding s 1830 – 1870 –struggles s Troubles in Governing –Constitutions –Many dictatorships s Economic Issues –Boom/ Bust Economies s Social and racial divisions s Limited Modernization and Industrialization s Mexico –French Intervention, Maximillian, Napoleon III –Benito Juarez s Post 1870 and British intervention –One crop economies Cocco Coffee Silver Rubber s Monroe Doctrine at turn of 19 th century

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