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Chapter Nine The Victorian Age.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Nine The Victorian Age."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Nine The Victorian Age

2 1. Historical background
* The comparison between Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth I * Being on the throne for a long period of time Elizabeth Victoria More than 40 years More than 60 years

3 Capitalism first took its shape.
*During their long reigns England developed rapidly both politically and commercially. agricultural country Capitalism first took its shape. industrialized country Defeated the strong naval power Spain in 1588. workshop political center financial center

4 * Literature flourished during their reigns.
Elizabeth Victoria novel drama Shakespeare Dickens

5 * The Victorian age can be roughly divided into three periods.
The first period: The middle period: The last period: British Empire : the empire on which the sun never sets

6 Industrial capitalists gained power in Parliament
The reform bill in 1832 The capitalists hired unskilled workers stream engine Based on the Utilitarian philosophy Laissez faire Founded by Jeremy Bentham Utilitarianism Continued by John Stuart Mill

7 economy: peace and prosperity
The mid-Victorian period was heyday of the Victorian age. economy: peace and prosperity workshop of the world and the world’s banker a period of complacency, stability, optimism Dickens exposed the darker side of seemingly prosperous society Gaskell novelists Eliot

8 Two groups of the opponents
The debate between the supporters of Utilitarianism and their opponents existed for a long time. Two groups of the opponents Represented by Carlyle Cardinal Newman Oxford Movement Not like Christian A powerful church Believed spiritual belief

9 2. The Victorian novelists
the year of 1832 Scott died the end of romantic movement Continued to be found in the works of the writers and poets of the Victorian age.

10 factors explained the rise of novels as dominant literary genre:
the growth of urban population resulted in the appearance of a new reading public with the development of the method of printing and paper making, the price of books dropped writing had become a profession, which made it possible for the writers to make a living by writing

11 with ascendancy of the industrial capitalists, the majority of whom lived an idle life and need entertainment and novels met with their desires the conditions of the time the dire poverty on the one hand and the enormous wealth needed a secular form to explore human relations rather than sermons given in the church. the feminist movement had much to do with the growth of the novels

12 Common features shared by Victorian novels
the plot is unfolded against a social background which is broader than previous novels the cause-effect sequence is much more striking than before the most of the Victorian novels were first published in serial form before fully developed in a single book be tainted by the spirit of Puritanism of the Victorian age be characterized by moral purpose

13 Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) Born --- at Portsmouth in 1812
Family --- father was a clerk in a Navy Pay Office His father was put into the prison for debt. Experiences --- The family were living in the prison. Dickens worked in a shoe blacking factory. Dickens worked in a lawyer’s office Learned shorthand Parliament reporter

14 His works Sketches by Boz (1836)
his first book The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837) brought him fame and wealth Oliver Twist (1838) Nicholas Nickleby (1839) The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) Martin Chuzzlewit (1844)

15 Christmas stories A Christmas Carol The Chimes
The cricket on the Hearth Dickens showed his profound sympathy for the poor.

16 Dombey and Son (1848) Bleak House (1853) Hard Times (1854) Little Dorrit (1857) Our Mutual Friend (1865)

17 Dickens’ artistic techniques
Dickens has a tendency to depict the grosteque characters or events. Dickens loves to instil life into inanimate things and to compare animate beings to inanimate things. Dickens is noted for his description of pathetic scenes that aim to arouse people’s sympathy.

18 William Makepeace Thackeray (1811 –1863)
Born --- in a well – to –do family Family --- His father was an officer. Education --- at Cambridge, but without degree Achievements --- a comic illustrator and journalist Works --- Vanity Fair (1848) first major novel The School of Snobs (1847) The Newcomes (1855) Henry Esmond (1852)

19 Similarities between Thackeray and Dickens
both humourists criticized the Victorian society satirically

20 Differences between Thackeray and Dickens
* The world described by them differently. the lives of aristocrats middle and upper classes Thackeray the lives of rich businessmen the underdogs Dickens lower class the unpriviledged

21 advocate reforms Dickens sentimentalist He liked to avail himself of every opportunity to arouse the emotions of his readers. Thackeray not crusader cynic He saw no good in anything and doubted the goodness of human nature.

22 Dickens romantist let loose his imagination Thackeray against affectation He is tempered by humor.

23 3. The Victorian Poets Alfred Tennyson Robert Browning Matthew Arnold
wrote highly lyrical poems reflected the spiritual search the Victorian poets living in a time of spiritual unrest the increasingly sharpening of the class struggle between the wealthy and the poor reasons the rapid progress of science and technology the discovery of new theories of social science

24 The features of Victorian poetry
* The prominence of the spirit of inquiry and criticism *scepticism and religious uncertainty *spiritual struggle and unrest

25 Lord Alfred Tennyson the leading poet the Age of Tennyson
poet laureate Born --- in a clergyman’s family Education --- at Cambridge, but left for financial need Poems by Two Brothers (1827) Works: Poems (1833, 1842) Ulysses The Lady of Shalott Morte d’Arthur

26 Robert Browning ( ) family --- the son of a clerk in the Bank of England education --- never attended school was privately educated by his parents marriage --- Elizabeth Barrett in 1846 lived in Italy until his wife died Pauline his first poem works --- My Last Duchess the most representative

27 戏剧独白诗 Dramatic monologue
A poem in which there is one imaginary speaker addressing an imaginary audience. He penetrates to depth the psychology of his characters and through their own speeches, he analyzes and dissects his characters and reveals the innermost secret of their lives.

28 Similarities Preached God and Immortality Differences Tennyson Browning optimistic felt melancholy

29 Matthew Arnold (1822 --- 1888) conflict between science and religion
Born --- a clergyman’s family Family --- his father:a headmaster Education --- Oxford Work --- professor of poetry at Oxford Achievement --- a poet and a literary critic Writing aim --- reflects on the doubt of his age conflict between science and religion

30 His works: Essays in Criticism (1865 and 1888) 《批评文集》 Culture and Anarchy (1889) 《文化与无政府状态》

31 Jane Austin (1775– 1817) Sense and Sensibility (1811)
Pride and Prejudice (1813) Northanger Abbey (1818) 《诺桑觉寺》 Mansfield Park (1814) 《曼斯菲尔德庄园》 Emma (1816) Persuasion (1818)

32 Pride and Prejudice Mr. and Mrs. Bennet Jane Elizabeth Bingley Darcy

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