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Chapter Nine The Victorian Age. 1. Historical background * The comparison between Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth I * Being on the throne for a long.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Nine The Victorian Age. 1. Historical background * The comparison between Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth I * Being on the throne for a long."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Nine The Victorian Age

2 1. Historical background * The comparison between Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth I * Being on the throne for a long period of time ElizabethVictoria More than 40 years More than 60 years

3 *During their long reigns England developed rapidly both politically and commercially. Capitalism first took its shape. Defeated the strong naval power Spain in 1588. agricultural country industrialized country workshop financial center political center

4 * Literature flourished during their reigns. Elizabeth drama Shakespeare Victoria novel Dickens

5 * The Victorian age can be roughly divided into three periods. The first period: 1832 --- 1848 The middle period: 1848 --- 1870 The last period: 1870 --- 1901 British Empire : the empire on which the sun never sets

6 The reform bill in 1832 Industrial capitalists gained power in Parliament stream engine The capitalists hired unskilled workers Laissez faire Based on the Utilitarian philosophy Utilitarianism Founded by Jeremy Bentham Continued by John Stuart Mill

7 The mid-Victorian period was heyday of the Victorian age. economy: peace and prosperity workshop of the world and the world ’ s banker a period of complacency, stability, optimism Dickens Gaskell Eliot novelists exposed the darker side of seemingly prosperous society

8 The debate between the supporters of Utilitarianism and their opponents existed for a long time. Two groups of the opponents Represented by Carlyle Not like Christian Believed spiritual belief Cardinal Newman Oxford Movement A powerful church

9 2. The Victorian novelists the year of 1832Scott died the end of romantic movement Continued to be found in the works of the writers and poets of the Victorian age.

10 factors explained the rise of novels as dominant literary genre: the growth of urban population resulted in the appearance of a new reading public the growth of urban population resulted in the appearance of a new reading public with the development of the method of printing and paper making, the price of books dropped with the development of the method of printing and paper making, the price of books dropped writing had become a profession, which made it possible for the writers to make a living by writing writing had become a profession, which made it possible for the writers to make a living by writing

11 with ascendancy of the industrial capitalists, the majority of whom lived an idle life and need entertainment and novels met with their desires with ascendancy of the industrial capitalists, the majority of whom lived an idle life and need entertainment and novels met with their desires the conditions of the time the dire poverty on the one hand and the enormous wealth needed a secular form to explore human relations rather than sermons given in the church. the conditions of the time the dire poverty on the one hand and the enormous wealth needed a secular form to explore human relations rather than sermons given in the church. the feminist movement had much to do with the growth of the novels the feminist movement had much to do with the growth of the novels

12 Common features shared by Victorian novels the plot is unfolded against a social background which is broader than previous novels the plot is unfolded against a social background which is broader than previous novels the cause-effect sequence is much more striking than before the cause-effect sequence is much more striking than before the most of the Victorian novels were first published in serial form before fully developed in a single book the most of the Victorian novels were first published in serial form before fully developed in a single book be tainted by the spirit of Puritanism of the Victorian age be tainted by the spirit of Puritanism of the Victorian age be characterized by moral purpose be characterized by moral purpose

13 Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) Born --- at Portsmouth in 1812 Family --- father was a clerk in a Navy Pay Office Experiences --- His father was put into the prison for debt. The family were living in the prison. Dickens worked in a shoe blacking factory. Dickens worked in a lawyer ’ s office Learned shorthand Parliament reporter

14 His works Sketches by Boz (1836) his first book The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837) brought him fame and wealth Oliver Twist (1838) Nicholas Nickleby (1839) The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) Martin Chuzzlewit (1844)

15 Christmas stories A Christmas Carol A Christmas Carol The Chimes The Chimes The cricket on the Hearth The cricket on the Hearth Dickens showed his profound sympathy for the poor.

16 Dombey and Son (1848) Bleak House (1853) Hard Times (1854) Little Dorrit (1857) Our Mutual Friend (1865)

17 Dickens ’ artistic techniques Dickens has a tendency to depict the grosteque characters or events. Dickens has a tendency to depict the grosteque characters or events. Dickens loves to instil life into inanimate things and to compare animate beings to inanimate things. Dickens loves to instil life into inanimate things and to compare animate beings to inanimate things. Dickens is noted for his description of pathetic scenes that aim to arouse people ’ s sympathy. Dickens is noted for his description of pathetic scenes that aim to arouse people ’ s sympathy.

18 William Makepeace Thackeray (1811 – 1863) Born --- in a well – to – do family Born --- in a well – to – do family Family --- His father was an officer. Family --- His father was an officer. Education --- at Cambridge, but without degree Education --- at Cambridge, but without degree Achievements --- a comic illustrator and journalist Achievements --- a comic illustrator and journalist Works --- Works --- Vanity Fair (1848) first major novel The School of Snobs (1847) The Newcomes (1855) Henry Esmond (1852)

19 Similarities between Thackeray and Dickens both humourists criticized the Victorian society satirically

20 Differences between Thackeray and Dickens * The world described by them differently. Thackeray the lives of aristocrats the lives of rich businessmen middle and upper classes Dickens the underdogs the unpriviledged lower class

21 Dickens sentimentalist He liked to avail himself of every opportunity to arouse the emotions of his readers. Thackeray cynic He saw no good in anything and doubted the goodness of human nature. advocate reforms not crusader

22 Dickens romantist let loose his imagination Thackeray He is tempered by humor. against affectation

23 3. The Victorian Poets Alfred Tennyson Alfred Tennyson Robert Browning Robert Browning Matthew Arnold Matthew Arnold wrote highly lyrical poems reflected the spiritual search the Victorian poets living in a time of spiritual unrest reasons the increasingly sharpening of the class struggle between the wealthy and the poor the rapid progress of science and technology the discovery of new theories of social science

24 The features of Victorian poetry * The prominence of the spirit of inquiry and criticism *scepticism and religious uncertainty *spiritual struggle and unrest

25 Lord Alfred Tennyson the leading poetthe Age of Tennyson Born --- in a clergyman ’ s family Education --- at Cambridge, but left for financial need Works: Poems by Two Brothers (1827) Poems (1833, 1842) The Lady of Shalott Morte d ’ Arthur Ulysses poet laureate

26 Robert Browning (1812 --- 1889) family --- the son of a clerk in the Bank of England education --- never attended school was privately educated by his parents marriage --- Elizabeth Barrett in 1846 lived in Italy until his wife died works --- Pauline his first poem My Last Duchess the most representative

27 Dramatic monologue 戏剧独白诗 A poem in which there is one imaginary speaker addressing an imaginary audience. He penetrates to depth the psychology of his characters and through their own speeches, he analyzes and dissects his characters and reveals the innermost secret of their lives.

28 SimilaritiesPreached God and Immortality Differences TennysonBrowning felt melancholy optimistic

29 Matthew Arnold (1822 --- 1888) Born --- a clergyman ’ s family Born --- a clergyman ’ s family Family --- his father : a headmaster Family --- his father : a headmaster Education --- Oxford Education --- Oxford Work --- professor of poetry at Oxford Work --- professor of poetry at Oxford Achievement --- a poet and a literary critic Achievement --- a poet and a literary critic Writing aim --- reflects on the doubt of his age Writing aim --- reflects on the doubt of his age conflict between science and religion conflict between science and religion

30 His works: Essays in Criticism (1865 and 1888) Culture and Anarchy (1889) 《批评文集》 《文化与无政府状态》

31 Jane Austin (1775 – 1817) Sense and Sensibility (1811) Sense and Sensibility (1811) Pride and Prejudice (1813) Pride and Prejudice (1813) Northanger Abbey (1818) Northanger Abbey (1818) 《诺桑觉寺》 《诺桑觉寺》 Mansfield Park (1814) Mansfield Park (1814) 《曼斯菲尔德庄园》 《曼斯菲尔德庄园》 Emma (1816) Emma (1816) Persuasion (1818) Persuasion (1818)

32 Mr. and Mrs. Bennet Jane Elizabeth Bingley Darcy


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