21. Historical background * The comparison between Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth I* Being on the throne for a long period of timeElizabethVictoriaMore than 40 yearsMore than 60 years
3Capitalism first took its shape. *During their long reigns England developed rapidly both politically and commercially.agricultural countryCapitalism first took its shape.industrialized countryDefeated the strong naval power Spain in 1588.workshoppolitical centerfinancial center
4* Literature flourished during their reigns. ElizabethVictorianoveldramaShakespeareDickens
5* The Victorian age can be roughly divided into three periods. The first period:The middle period:The last period:British Empire : the empire on which the sun never sets
6Industrial capitalists gained power in Parliament The reform bill in 1832The capitalists hired unskilled workersstream engineBased on the Utilitarian philosophyLaissez faireFounded by Jeremy BenthamUtilitarianismContinued by John Stuart Mill
7economy: peace and prosperity The mid-Victorian period was heyday of the Victorian age.economy: peace and prosperityworkshop of the world and the world’s bankera period of complacency, stability, optimismDickensexposed the darker side of seemingly prosperous societyGaskellnovelistsEliot
8Two groups of the opponents The debate between the supporters of Utilitarianism and their opponents existed for a long time.Two groups of the opponentsRepresented by CarlyleCardinal NewmanOxford MovementNot like ChristianA powerful churchBelieved spiritual belief
92. The Victorian novelists the year of 1832Scott diedthe end of romantic movementContinued to be found in the works of the writers and poets of the Victorian age.
10factors explained the rise of novels as dominant literary genre: the growth of urban population resulted in the appearance of a new reading publicwith the development of the method of printing and paper making, the price of books droppedwriting had become a profession, which made it possible for the writers to make a living by writing
11with ascendancy of the industrial capitalists, the majority of whom lived an idle life and need entertainment and novels met with their desiresthe conditions of the time the dire poverty on the one hand and the enormous wealth needed a secular form to explore human relations rather than sermons given in the church.the feminist movement had much to do with the growth of the novels
12Common features shared by Victorian novels the plot is unfolded against a social background which is broader than previous novelsthe cause-effect sequence is much more striking than beforethe most of the Victorian novels were first published in serial form before fully developed in a single bookbe tainted by the spirit of Puritanism of the Victorian agebe characterized by moral purpose
13Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) Born --- at Portsmouth in 1812 Family --- father was a clerk in a Navy Pay OfficeHis father was put into the prison for debt.Experiences ---The family were living in the prison.Dickens worked in a shoe blacking factory.Dickens worked in a lawyer’s officeLearned shorthand Parliament reporter
14His works Sketches by Boz (1836) his first bookThe Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837)brought him fame and wealthOliver Twist (1838)Nicholas Nickleby (1839)The Old Curiosity Shop (1841)Martin Chuzzlewit (1844)
15Christmas stories A Christmas Carol The Chimes The cricket on the HearthDickens showed his profound sympathy for the poor.
16Dombey and Son (1848)Bleak House (1853)Hard Times (1854)Little Dorrit (1857)Our Mutual Friend (1865)
17Dickens’ artistic techniques Dickens has a tendency to depict the grosteque characters or events.Dickens loves to instil life into inanimate things and to compare animate beings to inanimate things.Dickens is noted for his description of pathetic scenes that aim to arouse people’s sympathy.
18William Makepeace Thackeray (1811 –1863) Born --- in a well – to –do familyFamily --- His father was an officer.Education --- at Cambridge, but without degreeAchievements --- a comic illustrator and journalistWorks ---Vanity Fair (1848)first major novelThe School of Snobs (1847)The Newcomes (1855)Henry Esmond (1852)
19Similarities between Thackeray and Dickens both humouristscriticized the Victorian society satirically
20Differences between Thackeray and Dickens * The world described by them differently.the lives of aristocratsmiddle and upper classesThackeraythe lives of rich businessmenthe underdogsDickenslower classthe unpriviledged
21advocatereformsDickenssentimentalistHe liked to avail himself of every opportunity toarouse the emotions of his readers.ThackeraynotcrusadercynicHe saw no good in anything and doubted thegoodness of human nature.
22Dickensromantistlet loose his imaginationThackerayagainst affectationHe is tempered by humor.
233. The Victorian Poets Alfred Tennyson Robert Browning Matthew Arnold wrote highly lyrical poemsreflected the spiritual searchthe Victorian poetsliving in a time of spiritual unrestthe increasingly sharpening of the class struggle between the wealthy and the poorreasonsthe rapid progress of science and technologythe discovery of new theories of social science
24The features of Victorian poetry * The prominence of the spirit of inquiry and criticism*scepticism and religious uncertainty*spiritual struggle and unrest
25Lord Alfred Tennyson the leading poet the Age of Tennyson poet laureateBorn --- in a clergyman’s familyEducation --- at Cambridge, but left for financial needPoems by Two Brothers (1827)Works:Poems (1833, 1842)UlyssesThe Lady of ShalottMorte d’Arthur
26Robert Browning ( )family --- the son of a clerk in the Bank of Englandeducation --- never attended schoolwas privately educated by his parentsmarriage --- Elizabeth Barrett in 1846lived in Italy until his wife diedPaulinehis first poemworks ---My Last Duchessthe most representative
27戏剧独白诗 Dramatic monologue A poem in which there is one imaginary speaker addressing an imaginary audience.He penetrates to depth the psychology of his characters and through their own speeches, he analyzes and dissects his characters and reveals the innermost secret of their lives.
28SimilaritiesPreached God and ImmortalityDifferencesTennysonBrowningoptimisticfelt melancholy
29Matthew Arnold (1822 --- 1888) conflict between science and religion Born --- a clergyman’s familyFamily --- his father：a headmasterEducation --- OxfordWork --- professor of poetry at OxfordAchievement --- a poet and a literary criticWriting aim --- reflects on the doubt of his ageconflict between science and religion
30His works:Essays in Criticism (1865 and 1888)《批评文集》Culture and Anarchy (1889)《文化与无政府状态》
31Jane Austin (1775– 1817) Sense and Sensibility (1811) Pride and Prejudice (1813)Northanger Abbey (1818)《诺桑觉寺》Mansfield Park (1814)《曼斯菲尔德庄园》Emma (1816)Persuasion (1818)
32Pride and PrejudiceMr. and Mrs. BennetJaneElizabethBingleyDarcy