Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Common Rater Errors.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Common Rater Errors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Common Rater Errors

2

3 Count the black dots at the crossings of the grey lines: Source:

4

5 Video: or

6

7

8

9 The red squares are the same colour and size So why do they look different?

10 Which animal do you see?

11 Source:

12 Perception does not record reality like a camera. “Perception is a process by which we organize and interpret our sensory impressions in order to give meaning to our environment.” S. Robbins (2005)

13 Optical illusions demonstrate the unreliability of our perception of objects. But rating is about the perception of individual persons in social situations.

14 We don´t see things as they are, we see things as we are. (This is because it is the „I“ behind the „eye“ that does the seeing.) Anais Nin

15 Video: Basketball Task: Count how often the white team is in possession of the ball.

16

17 How many different persons did you see? a) more than 15? b) more than 10? c) more than 5? d) less than 5?

18

19

20

21

22 The Difference between Seeing and Observing

23 “Quite so,” he (Sherlock Holmes) answered, lighting a cigarette, and throwing himself down into an armchair. “You see, but you do not observe. The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room.” “Frequently.” “How often?” “Well, some hundreds of times.” “Then how many are there?” “How many? I don’t know.” “Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is just my point. Now, I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed.” Arthur Conan Doyle, A Scandal in Bohemia The Difference between Seeing and Observing

24 Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information. Rating Errors

25  Intelligent  Industrious  Impulsive  Critical  Stubborn  Envious  Stubborn  Critical  Impulsive  Industrious  Intelligent This person was rated more positively One group read this description: Other group read this description: Primacy Effect Asch, S. E. (1946) Forming impressions of personality. J. abnorm. soc. Psych., 41,

26 Primacy Effect - Explanations  Attention at a maximum when making initial impressions.  Once we think we have formed an accurate impression of someone, we pay less attention to later behavioral evidence.  Later information dismissed - it’s not viewed as typical.  Early information affects ‘meaning’ of later information. We interpret inconsistent information in light of the first impression.

27 Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information. Primacy Effect Information presented early has more impact on impressions than information presented later. Recency Effect Tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance. Rating Errors

28 Kelley, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18, Mr. XY is a graduate student in the Department of Economics and Social Science here at MIT. He has had three semesters of teaching experience in psychology at another college. This is his first semester teach EC 70. He is 26 years old, a veteran, and married. People who know him consider him to be a rather cold person, industrious, critical, practical, and determined. Mr. XY is a graduate student in the Department of Economics and Social Science here at MIT. He has had three semesters of teaching experience in psychology at another college. This is his first semester teach EC 70. He is 26 years old, a veteran, and married. People who know him consider him to be a very warm person, industrious, critical, practical, and determined. Example: Warm or Cold

29 Halo-Effect The class got the same lecture, but at the end, when asked to rate Mr. XY for possible hiring as an instructor, the students who had read the description of a “very warm” person rated him as “good-natured, considerate of others, informal, sociable, popular, humorous, and humane,” while those who read that he was “rather cold” rated him as “self-centered, formal, unsociable, unpopular, irritable, humorless, and ruthless.” Kelley, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18,

30 Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information. Primacy Effect Information presented early has more impact on impressions than information presented later. Recency Effect Tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance. Halo- or Horns Effect Forming an overall impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. Similar to Me Effect People who are similar to me are evaluated more favorably Rating Errors

31 Contrast/Context Evaluation of a person’s characteristics is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Projection People assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that persons belongs. Personal biases Unintentional discrimination based on age, sex, race, etc. Attribution Tendency to underestimate situational factors that may constrain the ratees performance.

32 Rating Errors  Leniency Tendency to give ratings that are overly high (inflation)  Severity Tendency to give ratings that are overly low (deflation)  Central Tendency Tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral.

33  Selective Perception.  Primacy Effect  Recency Effect.  Halo-or Horns Effect  Similar to Me Effect  Contrast/Context  Projection  Stereotyping  Personal biases  Attribution  Leniency  Severity  Central Tendency Rating Errors - Overview

34  Selective Perception.  Primacy Effect  Recency Effect.  Halo-or Horns Effect  Similar to Me Effect  Contrast/Context  Projection  Stereotyping  Personal biases  Attribution  Leniency  Severity  Central Tendency Rating Errors - Overview intentional unintentional


Download ppt "Common Rater Errors."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google