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Introductory Notes on the Novel A novel is a fictional, prose, narrative of 50,000 words or less.

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Presentation on theme: "Introductory Notes on the Novel A novel is a fictional, prose, narrative of 50,000 words or less."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introductory Notes on the Novel A novel is a fictional, prose, narrative of 50,000 words or less.

3 Novels have many of the same elements as those found in short stories, but there are some differences. They both have at least one central conflict – but novels will have several minor conflicts. They both have characters –but chances are there will be more characters in a novel. There is evidence of character development in both, but some of the characters will be better developed (multi-dimensional)– due to length of text.) There are plots in both, but sub-plots can be found in novels. There will be a dominant theme in both, as well as theme clusters

4 Novels fulfill several functions: In order for a novel to be of value, it must accomplish one or more of the following goals: Entertain Hold interest Seem real Give insight and teach some moral truth

5 Pamela - first written work to be considered a novel. It was written by Samuel Richardson – 1600’s 3 different world views : Romanticism The writer uses great freedom of imagination The writer idealizes the world and dwells on how it should be rather than how it is. Views world through rose colored glasses There is usually a happy ending; it is optimistic and looks on the bright side of things

6 Realism - writer aims to interpret what is actually happening in life - writer stares facts in the face and is faithful to actuality - writer is free from idealism and romantic color – draws own opinion - writer uses much detail and lets facts speak for themselves - realism is truth - novel is objective; there is only one answer, and it is directed by the facts

7 Naturalism Naturalistic novels are much like realistic novels except they go one step further Naturalism is pessimistic Mankind is victim of a hostile society He/She is in a mechanized world and cannot do anything to change it (Wo)man feels as if he/she is a born loser. There is no way to escape destiny - -fatalistic The original modern naturalism writer was a Frenchman, Emil Zola – focuses on all the horrible aspects of life

8 Types of Novels/Movies A.Romantic – primarily adventure and/or love story that is written to entertain. 1. Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott 2. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen 3. Sleepless in Seattle (starring Meg Ryan & Tom Hanks)

9 Types of Novels/Movies (continued) B. Historical Novel 1. The plot revolves around an actual historical event or actual person in history. 2. It can be romantic and have heroes and beautiful heroines. 3. It is appealing because of its exciting, colorful stories. 4. Some examples are The Tale of Two Cities (Charles Dickens,) The Red Badge of Courage (Stephen Crane,) Gone with the Wind (Margaret Mitchell) Shakespeare in Love (starring Gwyneth Paltrow and Joseph Fiennes)

10 Types of Novels/Movies (continued) C.Sociological or Humanitarian Novel 1. Its purpose is to show the evil in society so that change can come about. 2. The author’s purpose is to promote sympathy for the plight of his /her characters. 3. Charles Dickens was the master of this type of novel. 4. The authors sometimes express their humanitarian ideals by writing about life in the future such as in George Orwell’s 1984, or Upton Sinclair’s Jungle. 5. Movie example – Amistad (directed by Steven Spielberg)

11 Types of Novels/Movies (continued) D.Psychological Novel 1. Its purpose is to deal with the inner thoughts and conflicts of the characters. 2. The author may use action and dialogue to show the inner life of his characters. 3. The modern science of psychology has made this type of novel very popular, but it has been used for much longer. 4. Two examples are Catcher In the Rye (J.D. Salinger) and Good Will Hunting (starring Matt Damon and Robin Williams.)

12 Types of Novels (continued) E. Allegorical Novel – 1. It contains symbolic meanings beyond the concrete facts of the story. 2. Characters and other elements may be symbols for certain abstract concepts. 3. Two examples would be Animal Farm (George Orwell) and Moby Dick (Herman Melville.)

13 Types of Novels/Movies (continued) F.Humorous Novel – 1. The humorous novel is rare because the material that one person thinks is funny may not be humorous to another person. 2. The classic humorous novels are based on characters that are “timeless” and could exist in any age. 3. Satire is a form of humor; yet it differs from it in that its fun is sometimes cruel. 4. Two book examples are Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer (Mark Twain) 5. Movie example – Monty Python’s Quest for the Holy Grail

14 Types of Novels (continued) G.Science Fiction Novel 1. It is based on scientific probability such as Frankenstein (Mary Shelley) War of the Worlds (H. G. Wells) and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (Jules Verne) The Martian Chronicles (Ray Bradbury) and Armageddon (starring Bruce Willis) 2. There is a strong mix of fact and fiction

15 Types of Novels (continued) H. Philosophical 1. A novel in which ideas are the most important aspect of the novel. 2. Two examples are Farenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury) or Saddhartha (Herman Hesse.)

16 Types of Novels/Movies (continued) I. Fantasy fiction 1. This type of story is based on pure imagination 2. Some examples of books are: The Hobbit (JRR Tolkein) The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe 3. Babe, Pig in the City is a sample movie

17 What was it like to live during the Victorian Era? Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 She was the longest reigning monarch in British history

18 Dramatic changes hit England with the onset of the industrial revolution

19 This was a huge change in political clout and power

20 Unfortunately, cities grew beyond their means during this era Sprawling rat-infested slums appeared Clean drinking water was scarce Cholera epidemics killed hundreds of thousands of people

21 Other negative effects of the industrial revolution included: – A breakdown in the infrastructure no place to educate children too few roads too few houses too few hospitals too few police no sewers

22 Negative effects of industrial revolution (continued) -not enough jobs could be found resulting in poverty alcoholism prostitution abuse

23 Child abuse ran rampant during the industrial revolution Children were grossly underpaid They had no one to protect their rights They worked from dawn to dark (16 hrs. per day) with no breaks

24 Factories were barn-like structures where many children worked They had only a few tiny windows up near the roof No sunlight –As a result children got rickets/resulting in short crooked bones –Females died during child birth and so did their babies

25 Poverty was the major social problem during this time period

26 Thus, children would often be placed in dangerous work places to help support the family

27 Children as young as five years of age worked in the mines

28 These young children were often harnessed to carts and forced to crawl on their knees for miles As a result many suffered from serious spine deformities

29 Another disease resulting from mining was black lung Many died by the age of twelve

30 Most poor families could not afford to educate their children because it cost one penny per week per child

31 Ragged schools were established For orphans and the very poor Older boys were sent to a day school taught by a local tradesman The Bible was the main textbook Victorian schools never took both boys and girls

32 Journalist Henry Mayhew focused on the lives and economic and social realities of children and adults “who swept streets and chimneys - - gathered rags and bones - - sold oranges, and performed acrobatic tricks to eke out a meager living” His work had a major impact on writers such as Charles Dickens who dedicated his literary career to evoking social reform by shocking a complacent middle class into acknowledging the plight of those on the bottom rung.

33 Dickens uses many of his characters to expose the social injustices of the times

34 One of the few ways in which a person was able to change class was through the inheritance of valuables Moving up in class was difficult. In Dickens’s novel Great Expectations, Pip’s understanding of expectations are to allow him to become a gentleman. The word expectations meant legacy as well as anticipation.

35 Sometimes poverty led to poor decision making as evidenced in, Charles Dickens’s novel Great Expectations. People would wind up in prison with little hope of ever getting out. Prisons were: –Overcrowded –Dirty –Lacked ventilation –Void of sanitary conditions –Poorly maintained –And breeding grounds for illness

36 During this time period it was presumed that all people were guilty unless proven innocent. In some sections of England, trials were only held once a year when a visiting judge arrived There was no system of appeal. The only way a convict could get his/her sentence overturned was by a royal pardon Due to overcrowding, many prisoners were shipped to British colonies as an alternative to prison - -especially to Australia Crimes ranging from shoplifting to murder were all punishable by death Often the condemned were publicly hanged as a warning to abide by the law

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