6 1834Poor Law-Amendment applied a system of workhouses for poor people
7 1837Queen Victoria was crowned at the age of eighteen. Many people thought the responsibility was too great for her but she was a determined woman and reigned for 64 years.
8 Queen Victoria and the Victorian Temper Ruled England fromExemplifies Victorian qualities: earnestness, moral responsibility, domestic propriety
9 1840In 1840 the Penny Black stamp was issued. This was the first stamp in the world. People wrote a lot of letters at this time, as this was the only way to communicate over long distances.
10 1841The first railway excursion was organised by Thomas Cook.
11 Impact on Victorian Literature The novelists of the 1840’s and the 1850’s responded to the industrial and political scene:Charles Kingsley- The Water BabiesElizabeth Gaskell – North and South; Life of Charlotte BronteBenjamin Disraeli- Sybil
12 The Mid-Victorian Period 1848-1870 A time of prosperityA time of improvementA time of stabilityA time of optimism
14 Educational Opportunities for Women First women’s college established in 1848 in London.By the end of Victoria’s reign, women could take degrees at twelve university colleges.
15 1850 Life Insurance introduced. By 1850, railway lines connected England’s major citiesThe first cartoon appeared.Cartoons were used to emphasise the importance of industry during the Victorian Age.
16 1851Gold discoveredOne of the first buildings constructed according to modern architectural principles “The Crystal Palace”
17 The Crystal PalaceBuilt to display the exhibits of modern industry and science at the 1851 Great ExhibitionThe building symbolized the triumphs of Victorian industry
18 The British EmpireBetween 1853 and 1880, large scale immigration to British coloniesIn 1857, Parliament took over the government of India and Queen Victoria became empress of India.Many British people saw the expansion of empire as a moral responsibility.Missionaries spread Christianity in India, Asia, and Africa.
19 1854Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea to organise nursing during the war. There she saved the lives of many injured soldiers.
20 1855The famous Victorian artist, Ford Madox Brown, painted the 'Last of England'. It shows a family emigrating, possibly to Australia, to find work, like many people did in Victorian times.
21 1860 Florence Nightingale founds school for nurses. In the 1860's the 'bone shaker' appeared on the roads. This was one of the first bicycles to have pedals, which directly turned the front wheels.
22 1864Boys under the age of 10 were banned from being chimney sweeps.
23 The Late Victorian Period 1870-1901 Decay of Victorian valuesBritish imperialismBoer WarBismarck's Germany became a rival powerUnited States became a rival powerEconomic depression led to mass immigrationSocialism
24 1871Trade Union Act-made it legal for laborers to organize to protect their rights
25 1874The '10 hour Factory Act' was introduced. This meant that people could only be made to work for up to 10 hours per day.
26 1876Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
28 1880Children up to the age of 12 were made to go to school.
29 1884In the mid 1880's the 'Safety Bicycle' was built. It was much easier to ride than earlier models, with both wheels the same size and a chain. This finally gave ordinary people the freedom to travel.
30 1885The Prince of Wales opened the Birmingham Museum Round Room and Industrial Gallery. This part of the Museum still looks much the same today. You will notice from the columns and pillars that Victorians liked to copy Greek and Roman architecture.
33 The 1890’s Breakdown of Victorian values Mood of melancholy Aesthetic movementThe beginning of the modern movement in literatureAubrey Beardsley’s drawingsProse of George Moore and Max BeerbohmPoetry of Ernest Dowson
34 1890By 1900 , England had 15,195 lines of railroad and an underground rail system beneath London.The train transformed England’s landscape, supported the growth of commerce, and shrank the distance between cities.
35 1901Queen Victoria died and Edward Vll was made King. She had ruled longer than any other British Monarch.
36 The crisis of epidemics came to a peak in the “Great Stink”. This expression is used to describe the terrible smell in London, coming from the Thames.The “Miasmas”, exhalations from decaying matter, poisoned the air.
37 The houses of the rich had water in the kitchen, gas lighting, flushing toilets and were decorated.
38 Poor families, with 4-5 children, lived in houses with 2-3 rooms and without a lavatory.
39 Religious DebateEvangelical movement emphasized spiritual transformation of the individual by conversion and a moral Christian life.Their view of life was identical with Dissenters.The High Church emphasized the importance of tradition, ritual, and authorityThe Oxford Movement led by NewmanThe Broad Church was open to modern ideas.
40 UtilitarianismDerived from the ideas of Jeremy Bentham and his disciple James Mill, the father of John Stuart MillRationalist test of valueThe greatest good for the greatest numberUtilitarianism failed to recognize people’s spiritual needs
41 Challenges to Religious Belief ScienceHuxleyDarwin- the Origin of Species and The Descent of ManHigher CriticismExamination of the Bible as a mere text of historySource studiesGeologyAstronomy
42 The Role of WomenChanging conditions of women’s work created by the Industrial RevolutionThe Factory Acts ( ) – regulations of the conditions of labor in mines and factoriesThe Custody Act (1839) – gave a mother the right to petition the court for access to her minor children and custody of children under seven and later sixteen.The Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act – established a civil divorce court
43 Working Conditions for Women Bad working conditions and underemployment drove thousands of women into prostitution.The only occupation at which an unmarried middle-class woman could earn a living and maintain some claim to gentility was that of a governess.
44 Victorian Women and the Home Victorian society was preoccupied with the very nature of women.Protected and enshrined within the home, her role was to create a place of peace where man could take refuge from the difficulties of modern life.
45 Victorian household objects Chamber potCopper kettleDolly and washtub
46 This sewing machine works by pressing the metal pedal underneath; this turns the wheel, which moves the needle up and down.How do sewing machines work todaySewing machine
47 Literacy, Publication, and Reading By the end of the century, literacy was almost universal.Compulsory national education required to the age of ten.Due to technological advances, an explosion of things to read, including newspapers, periodicals, and books.Growth of the periodicalNovels and short fiction were published iin serial form.The reading public expected literature to illuminate social problems.
49 The Victorian NovelThe novel was the dominant form in Victorian literature.Victorian novels seek to represent a large and comprehensive social world, with a variety of classes.Victorian novels are realistic.Major theme is the place of the individual in society, the aspiration of the hero or heroine for love or social position.The protagonist’s search for fulfillment is emblematic of the human condition.For the first time, women were major writers: the Brontes. Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot.The Victorian novel was a principal form of entertainment.
50 Victorian PoetryVictorian poetry developed in the context of the novel. Poets sought new ways of telling stories in verseAll of the Victorian poets show the strong influence of the Romantics, but they cannot sustain the confidence the Romantics felt in the power of the imagination.Victorian poets often rewrite Romantic poems with a sense of belatedness.Dramatic monologue – the idea of creating a lyric poem in the voice of a speaker ironically distinct from the poet is the great achievement of Victorian poetry.Victorian poetry is pictorial; poets use detail to construct visual images that represent the emotion or situation the poem concerns.Conflict t between private poetic self and public social role.
51 Victorian DramaThe theater was a flourishing and popular institution during the Victorian period.The popularity of theater influenced other genres.Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde transformed British theater with their comic masterpieces.
52 Hoop and StickIn this game, a hoop is rolled, or "trundled," with the help of a stick. The object of the game is to keep the hoop rolling by running alongside.Children sometimes had hoop-rolling races!
53 SkippingVictorian girls played with skipping ropes. Poorer children just had odd bits of rope with no handles.