Presentation on theme: "The Victorians A brief summary by Y5B. Queen Victoria Victoria was born in 24 May 1819 Kensington palace, London. She died in 22 January 1901 (aged 81)."— Presentation transcript:
Queen Victoria Victoria was born in 24 May 1819 Kensington palace, London. She died in 22 January 1901 (aged 81). Her Full name was Alexandrina Victoria. Warmhearted and lively, Victoria had a gift for drawing and painting; educated by a governess at home, she was a natural diarist. She became Queen at the age of 18.
Queen Victoria Cont…. The Queen loved singing. She loved to draw and paint and kept a regular diary throughout her life. As a girl Victoria had a fabulous collection of dolls, while in later life she became fond of the opera and the theatre. Queen Victoria published two books during her lifetime, 'Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands' and 'More Leaves' in 1868 and 1884 respectively.
Queen Victoria Queen Victoria ruled over one hundred and fifty years ago. She started to rule the British Empire in 1837 and died in 1901, so she ruled for 64 years. Queen Victoria is associated with Britain's great age of industrial expansion, economic progress and, especially, empire. At her death, it was said, Britain had a worldwide empire on which the sun never set. In the early part of her reign, she was influenced by two men: her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband, Prince Albert.
Victoria and Albert On the 10 th of February 1840, she was married to her cousin Prince Albert, the son of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe- Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20 he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria.
Prince Albert At first, Albert felt constrained by his position as consort, which did not confer any power or duties upon him. Over time, he adopted many public causes, such as the abolition of slavery and educational reform, and took on the responsibilities of running the Queen's household, estates and office.
The Duchess of Kent with Victoria, aged 2 years. Princess Victoria in 1824 11 years old. At 18 years of age At 20 years of age. Victoria getting married to Prince Albert her cousin. Victoria with her husband and 9 Children. In the age of 66.
Queen Victoria had nine children with her husband Albert called Alice, Alfred, Louise, Arthur, Leopold and Beatrice. The Royal Family today is related to many European monarchies because of the marriages of Queen Victoria's children. Eight of Victoria's children sat on the thrones of Europe, those of Great Britain, Prussia, Greece, Romania, Russia, Norway, Sweden and Spain. Queen Victoria was survived by 6 children, 40 grandchildren and 37 great-grandchildren, including four future sovereigns of England: Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI.
Possibilities for Victorian children What was it like for children living in Victorian Britain? In the 1830s children could wave at puffing steam trains on the new railways. By the 1860s, they rode bicycles, watched airships, ate tinned food, and talked excitedly of the latest huge iron steamships. In the 1880s, lucky children could speak on the telephone and in the 1890s they could travel by motor car. Life however was not the same for all children during the Victorian times. The kind of life a child had in the Victorian times depended on his or her family.
Dr Barnardo A house in Stepney Causeway was to become the first of Thomas Barnardo’s homes for children. It was opened in 1870 as a home for boys. Bernard would go out every night looking for homeless children. One night an 11 year old boy was turned away as the home was full. Two days later he was found dead. From that day on the Home’s motto was ‘No Destitute Child Ever Refused Admission.’
Girls’ Village Home A Girls’ Village Home in Barkingside was opened in 1876. It housed over 1,500 girls at a time. This was different to the boys home as it was set in its own grounds; each cottage had its own front and back gardens and there was also a steam laundry on the grounds. The girls who stayed at the Village Home received training as cooks and domestic service maids. This meant that every child could find employment once they had left the home.
Victorian era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria's rule. This was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop.
‘The Well to do’ Victorians Dances and other group gatherings would happen on a regular basis. "Well to do" Victorian Children enjoyed travel, with either trips to the seaside or to The Continent. Pocket change was available for any small personal purchases. Victorian toys for these children were expensive. Rocking horses with real hair and doll's houses full of beautiful furniture would occupy young girls for hours. Wax dolls and elegant tea sets would often be set up in a corner of the bedroom.
Victorian times Life was not the same for all children during Victorian times. The kind of life a child had depended on it’s family. Children from working class families had few luxuries, ate poor food, worked long hours, lived in damp, filthy conditions and many children died of disease. Children from rich families were usually well fed, clean and well clothed, they didn’t need to work, went on holidays and many other nice things.
Middle class Father The father was the head of the household. He was often strict and was obeyed by all without question. The children were taught to respect their father and always spoke politely to him calling him "Sir". Very few children would dare to be cheeky to their father or answer him back. When he wanted a little peace and quiet he would retire to his study and the rest of the family were not allowed to enter without his special permission.
The middle class mother The mother would often spend her time planning dinner parties, visiting her dressmaker or calling on friends, she did not do jobs like washing clothes or cooking and cleaning. Both "papa and mama saw the upbringing of their children as an important responsibility. They believed a child must be taught the difference between right and wrong if he was to grow into a good and thoughtful adult. If a child did something wrong he would be punished for his own good. "Spare the rod and spoil the child" was a saying Victorians firmly believed in.
Poor Victorian Children In Victorian times many poor children had to sleep and often die on streets, or were sent to the notorious workhouses.
Different Schools Middle class childrenMiddle class children Children from rich families were taught at home by a governess until they were 10 years old.Children from rich families were taught at home by a governess until they were 10 years old. Once a boy turned ten, he went away to Public schools Once a boy turned ten, he went away to Public schools like Eton or Harrow. like Eton or Harrow. There were very fewThere were very few schools available for girls however, until near the end of the Victorian time.schools available for girls however, until near the end of the Victorian time. Until then wealthy girls were mostly educated at home.Until then wealthy girls were mostly educated at home. Poor ChildrenPoor Children Poor children went to free charity schools or 'Dame' schools (so called because they were run by women) for young children.Poor children went to free charity schools or 'Dame' schools (so called because they were run by women) for young children. Ragged schools which tended to be a little tougher and violent.Ragged schools which tended to be a little tougher and violent. They also went to Sunday Schools which were run by churches. There they learnt bible stories and were taught to read a little. They also went to Sunday Schools which were run by churches. There they learnt bible stories and were taught to read a little.
Imposed Schooling The poor conditions in schools simply made their health even worse. Sometimes, teachers were attacked by angry parents. They were angry that their children should be at work earning money, Rather than wasting time at school.
Children were often scared of their teachers because they were very strict. Children as young as thirteen helped the teacher to control the class. These “pupil teachers” scribbled notes for their lessons in books. They received certificates which helped them qualify as teachers when they were older. In schools before 1850 you might see a single teacher instructing a class of over 100 children with help of pupils called “monitors”. The head teacher quickly taught these monitors, some of them as young as nine, who then tried to teach their schoolmates. Salaries were low, and there were more women teaching than men.
Schools In Victoria times the teachers at school were strict and if you talked they got out a stick and whacked you. The school times were 9am to 5pm.
Writing slates Paper was expensive. Children usually therefore wrote on slates with slate pencils. After a lesson was completed, and the teacher checked their work, the students cleared their slates for the next lesson.
Victorian Classrooms Here are some pictures of Victorian Classrooms.
The Victorian clothes Victorian people dressed appropriately to there age, and position society. Children were often dressed as a miniature version of their parents.
Victorian men Many of the Victorian gentlemen wore a black top hat, black suit, a waistcoat, black bottoms and a sported walking stick, which very often had an ornate handle. Poor men wore flea ridden rags and cast offs.
What ladies wore It was unheard of to see the Victorian ladies legs. Ladies wore long skirts or dresses. At the beginning if the Victorian era, skirts went straight down. It then became fashionable for women to wear their skirts spread over hoops so that the shape of the bottom could not be seen. By the end of the era the hoop disappeared and it was back in the slimmer skirts, but now with a bustle. The majority of a women wore a hat or a bonnet
Factories Most people, including children worked a twelve hour day. They had mid-day break for one hour and short break for breakfast and tea.
Health and Safety Health and safety of their workers. Children and young woman were explored in terrible conditions in textile mills and mines. Furnaces were operated without proper safety checks. Accidents were part of normal daily life.
Employing young children The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps. Children were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs and low wages. Climbing boys were employed by the chimney sweeps; small children were employed to scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; and children were also employed to work in coal mines to crawl through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. Children also worked as errand boys, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods
Employing young children cont… Many children got stuck in the chimneys that they were sweeping and eventually died. In factories it was not uncommon for children to lose limbs crawling under machinery to pick things up. Several Factory Acts were passed to prevent the exploitation of children in the workplace. Children of poor families would leave school at the age of eight and were then forced to go to work. School was not free at this time.
Factories and Mills The most dramatic social changes of the British Industrial Revolution involved the development of the factory system from the late 18th Century. They were intensified when water-wheels gave way to steam engines and factory work for most people became an urban occupation. The double transition from farm or rural cottage to factory and mill in smoky towns, was a great upheaval for many people seeking work.
Industrial Revolution The cotton factories of Lancashire are a key symbol of the world's first Industrial Revolution. Here, within about a 30-mile radius of Manchester, is where the modern world began. The factory system was well established in preparing the raw cotton and spinning it into yarn by the beginning of Victoria's reign, but there were still many hand-loom weavers who manufactured cloth at home.
Lord Shaftsbury Anthony Ashley Cooper, the eldest son of the 6th Earl of Shaftsbury, was born on 28th April, 1801. He became the Earl of Shaftsbury in 1851. Lord Shaftsbury was a politician who attempted to improve children's lives during the Victorian times At the age of 25, he became a member of Parliament, where he began to take an interest in the plight of poor children after reading newspaper reports about labor in industry. 1833 He proposed that children should work for a maximum of 10 hours a day 1834 the Factory Act was made law. It was now illegal for children under 9 to be employed in textile factories
1833 Factory Act, Children banned from working in textile factories under the age of nine. 9 - 13 year olds limited to work 9 hours a day and 48 hours a week. 13 - 18 year olds limited to work 12 hours a day and 69 hours a week. All children under eleven to have two hours education a day. Government Factory Inspectors appointed to enforce the law. As you can see, life in Victorians times as a child was not good.
Shopping Before the Co-operative Movement started, people could not be sure about the quality of the food they bought. There might be plaster in the flour or wood shavings in the tea. There were no laws about food additives or food hygiene. Middle-class and wealthier people had their shopping delivered - often by a boy on a bicycle. Everything was wrapped in brown paper. There were no plastic bags in those days!
Diet From the 1880s, newly developed refrigerated steam ships brought meat, butter and fish, as well as exotic fruit and vegetables, from abroad. For many poor families, meals consisted of bread, potatoes, cheese and tea - and very occasionally a bit of bacon. If they lived in the countryside they might catch a wild rabbit or fish from the river.
Trams By the 1890s, electric trams had put horse-drawn omnibuses out of a job. The tram could be driven from both ends. When it came to the end of its route, the controls were switched over. It was never turned round as you would a bus or a car.
Steam trains Tanfield Railway was one of the first lines built in England and was used for carrying coal until 1962. The engine shed here was built in 1854 and is the oldest working shed in Britain, possibly in the world. Building the railways was one of the great achievements of Victorian times. By the turn of the century, Britain was criss-crossed with more than 29,000 kilometres of rail track.
Leisure Music halls were becoming popular as cheap and cheerful entertainment. Shows featured singers, dancers, comedians, acrobats and magicians. Bank Holidays began in 1871 when a law was passed to allow banks to close. Very little business could be carried out while the banks were shut so 'bank holidays' became 'public holidays' too!
Victorian Toys Here are some pictures of Victorian toys
Victorian toys (Continued) Noah’s ark was one of the few toys children were allowed to play with on a Sunday, since it was based on a story from the bible. Shoe dolls were made by Victorian children. If you look closely at the picture on the first toy slide you will see it is made from the sole of a shoe. Victorian girls played with skipping ropes. Poorer children just had bits of rope with no handles.
Victorian houses Despite the availability of new products and more modern housing, vast numbers of the working population in the countryside were still living in tiny cottages, hovels and shacks well into the 20th century. In towns poor people lived in back-to-back houses called terraced houses.
Victorian Houses Middle class houses Middle class people were able to afford there own houses, so they didn’t have to pay a rent. They still went to work though as managers and professionals, where they usually earned a great deal of money for the family. Poor people’s houses They usually rented cottages and went to work at the coal mine or went to the workhouse. They went to these poorly paid and dangerous jobs to pay the rent for just a room or if they were lucky a whole house.
Miners Houses If a miner lost his job, he would lose his house too. If he was killed in an accident, or if he was too badly injured to continue to work in the mine, then he and his family would have to find somewhere else to live.
Miners Wives The father and the older boys worked shifts in the mine. The mother of the family had to be on hand at all times to cook meals or boil water for baths. She rarely managed more than two or three hours sleep at a stretch.
Victorian back yards Victorian back yards were filthy, overcrowded slums without sanitation. The toilet was outside, so if you needed the toilet in the night, you would have to go outside in the freezing cold weather. This was the normal life of many British people
Victorian back yards (Continued) Gladstone’s back yards The back yards were shared spaces, communal yards with communal privies, cesspits, ash pits, water, and gutters. Everything was shared. People living there had no control over what happened in there own back yards. People tried to create more private areas with stacks of saggars (the fireclay containers used to fire pottery). Yards were not paved, and in the Potteries broken waste pottery was used for used for surfacing.
Well Known Victorians Charles Dickens 1812-1870 A great novelist of the Victorian age. His novels were outstandingly popular in his time and are still popular now. His books include stories about thieves, convicts and schoolboys. He wrote about ordinary people and how they lived, about terrible prisons, bad schools and the workhouse. His famous characters include Oliver Twist, Scrooge and David Copperfield.
Well Known Victorians Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) "The lady with the lamp". The founder of modern nursing. In 1854 she took charge of nursing soldiers wounded in the Crimean War. She organized the cleaning of the filthy rat infested military hospital and organized proper nursing. The death rate fell dramatically and modern nursing was born.
Well Known Victorians David Livingstone (1813-1873) A missionary who made three long explorations of East Africa. He wrote the story of his amazing three year journey across the African continent from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean. He was the first European to see the Victoria Falls.
George Stephenson was the man who built the first train to run on tracks. The Rocket is the most famous train in history. The first commercial train ran between Stockton and Darlington in the north of England. Well Known Victorians
We enjoyed making this slide show and hope you learned something from it. The End