Presentation on theme: "On the role of Engineering Education and Research on the process of technological change: A comparative analysis for 1985-2000 Hugo Horta GLOBELICS ACADEMY."— Presentation transcript:
On the role of Engineering Education and Research on the process of technological change: A comparative analysis for Hugo Horta GLOBELICS ACADEMY 2004
“Observers should remain confused because higher education is inherently confusing and will be more confused in the future” Burton R. Clark (1996)
Framework (1) Accelerated technological change and growing importance of intangible assets (Conceição and Heitor, 1999) Accelerated technological change and growing importance of intangible assets (Conceição and Heitor, 1999) Emergence of the Chain-Linked innovation model (Kline and Rosenberg, 1986) Emergence of the Chain-Linked innovation model (Kline and Rosenberg, 1986) New forms of knowledge production (Gibbons, 1994) and institutional relations: triple helix model (Etzkowizt et al, 2000) New forms of knowledge production (Gibbons, 1994) and institutional relations: triple helix model (Etzkowizt et al, 2000)
Framework (2) Public financial constrains and increasing demands from society (Neave, 1998) Public financial constrains and increasing demands from society (Neave, 1998) From the Napoleonic university to the innovative university (Clark, 1998) From the Napoleonic university to the innovative university (Clark, 1998)
Question: How are technical universities adapting themselves to Gibbons proposed mix modes of knowledge production, triple helix institutional relation framework and constant demands from an increasingly complex, chaotic, and technologically dependent society?
Method (1) Focus on Research Universities: Focus on Research Universities: “These institutions offer a full range of baccalaureate programs, are committed to graduate education through the doctorate degree, and give high priority to research” Carnegie classification, 1994 Focus on Technical Universities Focus on Technical Universities
Methods (2) Methodology: 1) Quantitative, (Sources: OECD, Eurostat and NSF databases and universities) 2) Qualitative, (Sources: case studies, interviews and documental content analysis) One case study in progress: Technical University of Lisbon (UTL)
Dimension 1: What is the most predominant mode of knowledge production in place?
UTL case study results Research mostly based and institutionally structured on mode 1 characteristics (departmental structured, homogeneity of skills, mostly disciplinary-based projects) Lack of incentives to foster interdisciplinarity research Lack of incentives to foster interdisciplinarity research
Knowledge production increasingly requires heterogeneous teams to deal with complex problems involving transdisciplinary approaches on application contexts. Furthermore, it has to be done in a flexible and dynamic organization. Can interdisciplinarity be promoted if the incentives are focused at the individual career level as a form to surpass the organizational disciplinary setting?
Dimension 2: What is the level of research linkage to industry?
UTL case study results Low levels of interaction between the university and industry due to historical, social, and industry structure reasons Low patenting levels; patenting more appealing to students
Universities need to promote research linkages to enterprises as a structuring form to add value to the achieved scientific results. Furthermore, financial constrains require that universities open themselves to new funding sources, without loosing the research quality or damaging their institutional integrity. How can universities fund themselves without compromising their institutional integrity in face of decreasing financial support by the State? compromising their institutional integrity in face of decreasing financial support by the State?
Dimension 3: What are the R&D centres and universities autonomy levels and which should be the role of the State?
The State fund the Research centres for their activities (international peer evaluation), but allocates money to the universities to support the resources. Research units are reactive to funding and do not have a proactive attitude due to lack of critical mass and because they do not formally participate in defining the university scientific agenda or governance UTL case study results
Within the European Social model, the State may guarantee the universities institutional integrity and diversity through mechanisms of financing and evaluation. The financing to the university can be established based on activities (investment), rather than on resources (expense) Can the university achieve its scientific reform through the scientific autonomy of the centres, namely, allowing them to participate in the governance and elaboration of the scientific agenda?