Presentation on theme: "1 Bridging the GAP Together Equal Education for All Program Proposal Ni Luh Putu Maitra Agastya."— Presentation transcript:
1 Bridging the GAP Together Equal Education for All Program Proposal Ni Luh Putu Maitra Agastya
2 Contradictive Facts of Indonesia’s Education In 2005, most children enroll in primary school with the Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) of 94% with no significant gender gap (The State of the World’s Children, 2007). The Nine Years Compulsory Program open up opportunities for poor children to have free enrollment and monthly fee but overburden parents with cost of text books, uniforms, and transportation. Enrollment differs significantly among income groups. The poorest 20 percent of the population has a much lower NER of 49.9 percent compared to 72.2 percent in the richest 20 per cent (Fact Sheet Girls’ Education In Indonesia, 2002). Roughly 1.8 million children of primary school age 7-12 years, and 4.8 million age13-15 years, remain outside schools (National Socio-Economic Survey, 2002). The 1945 Constitution mandated 20 percent of national budget for education. Only 4 percent of the national budget allocated to education between 1992 to 2002. In 2006-2007, the percentage has increased to 11.8 percent. This leave a 8.2 percent gap each year since 2002 when The Constitution was amended.
3 Disparities within the Quality of Indonesia’s Education International National Plus Schools Process driven class activities, such as active learning and field trips. School based curriculum combining international and national perspective. For example using English as main language. High quality school facilities (comfortable classes with air conditioner, high ratio of computers and internet access, library with various English and Indonesian collection for teachers and children resources). Qualified local and international teachers with bachelor or master degree from reputable national or international universities. Annual teacher training programs from international trainers. Government State-Run Schools Content driven activities with “calk and board” or text book based class activities. Standard curriculum with no exposure to international perspective. English as a subject taught two times a week. Poor quality school facilities (damaged buildings, limited computers and internet access available for teachers, library with limited collection or no library within the school). Qualified local teachers from state or national schools of education. (There are currently 1,131,687 elementary school teachers in the country, only 99,500 are university graduates). Limited teacher training programs held by the Department of Education.
4 Framework According to Bourdieu, education play an essential role in maintaining the social class, “ Education is in fact on of the most effective means of perpetuating the existing social pattern, as it both provides an apparent justification for social inequalities and gives recognition to the cultural heritage, that is to a social gift treated as a natural one” (Nixon, 2007). Historically Indonesia was developed from a feudalist system of the Dutch colonization. The Dutch education system created segregation in the society as a part of the colonial policy. Children of government officials were given access to qualified Netherlands system while children of farmers were excluded from the education system (Haq, 2007). This class-based education system becomes “invisible” when the class’s culture that affects individual’s behavior, attitude, and values is internalized from one generation to the next (Langston, 1988). Society (both the middle-upper class and the poor) accepted the differences in education quality as “normal” and not realizing the widening gap between the haves and the haves not and the effect of the gap for future generations.
5 Framework The national education was established to eradicate illiteracy and has not change since then. The main focus was to have basic education, not aiming for high quality education. Media and socialization created the myth that education opens opportunities for social mobilization. In the reality, people moved from a very low class to a higher low class in the society. Globalization highlighted the inequality. Upper and middle class parents prefer private schools for their children in order to maintain their elite status and to prepare their offspring for globalization. Middle and low class parents are left with no choices but to put their children in state run schools with curriculum that is unfit for the globalization era. We can challenge classism in our society. As a member of the upper middle class, we could confront classist within the society, understand, and share our privileges. The Upper and Middle class also need to push government on issues of poverty and equal education through actions. As a member of the lower class, we need to educate ourselves of our identities and work together on issues of the class (Langston, 1988).
6 Program Objectives To provide high quality education for Indonesia’s children, particularly children from low social economic class. To bring together essential stakeholders in the society (government, state- funded schools, private schools, NGOs, parents, and children) working together to achieve Education For All (EFA) 2000 goals, particularly eradicating social inequalities in education. Raising class awareness Upper and middle social economic class’ awareness to give contributions to help bridging the gap. Lower social economic class’ awareness of their rights for equal access to high quality education.
7 Program Activities “School Mentoring” Program Pairing accredited international and national schools with low ranking state-funded elementary schools in the same district. During a six-month program, sharing sessions, trainings, and class observations will be held. Teachers from international schools can contribute their knowledge regarding creative curriculum development and teaching methods. Furthermore, teachers from international school could gain class and cultural sensitivity to add to the class’ learning experiences. State-funded school board members can gain from trainings in management, leadership, and funding from international school board members and parents. “We are Friends” Program Creating a safe and nurturing environment where children from various social economic background can interact with each other. In conjunction with School Mentoring Program, students from both school can be paired in school activities. For example grade 5 students from a national plus school can help grade 5 students from a state-funded school in learning English, computer, or internet. Younger students can work together in structured activities such as art projects.
8 Program Activities “Quality Education for All” Awareness Program National awareness campaign to : 1.Increase citizens’ awareness of inequality in the education systems. 2.Mobilize citizens’ awareness to give tangible contributions to affect the national budget on education and improving school’s quality. Involving the media, press, politicians, businessmen, and other public figures. Partnering with certain brand related to children, education, family, youth, women, and many others to sell products to support the funding of the awareness program. Policy Group and Lobbying Group A working group will continually collaborate to formulate a national curriculum guide to promote high quality education. Lobbying Group will focus their work in setting agendas with the local government, the Ministry of Education, political parties, and Legislators.
9 Targeted Partners Association of National Plus School (ANPS) International Baccalaureate Schools and Candidate Schools in Indonesia Other International schools Ministry of Education Media Corporations with interest in education and children development within their CSR programs International Organizations and Donors International, National, and Local NGOs focusing on education and children.
10 References Basic Education for All. Retrieved November 14, 2007 from http://www.unicef.org/indonesia/education_2864.html http://www.unicef.org/indonesia/education_2864.html Fact Sheet : Girls Education in Indonesia. (2002). Retrieved November 15, 2007, from www.unicef.org/indonesia/girls_education_fact_sheet_final_ENG_1_.pdf Haq, Muhammad Izzul. ( 2007, May 4). From one sort of exclusion to another: Logic in education. The Jakarta Post, p. 6. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw- search/we/InfoWeb. Indonesia at A Glance. Retrieved November 13, 2007 from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/indonesia.html Langston, Donna. (1988). Tired of playing monopoly. In Adams, M. et al. (Eds). Readings for Diversity and Social Justice (pp. 397-402). New York: Routeledge. Mixon, Nathalie. (2007). Exploring Critical Theory and Critical Ethnography in the Context of the Production and Reproduction of Social Class. In Kincheloe, J. & Steinberg, R. (Eds). Cutting Class: Socioeconomic status and education (pp. 71-93). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Soefijanto, Totok Amin (2007, May 5). The challenges for all. The Jakarta Post, p.7. Retrieved November 16,2007, from http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb. UNICEF (2006). The State of the World’s Children. Retrieved November 14, 2007, from http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_36602.html. http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_36602.html