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Presentation on theme: "The Community College Baccalaureate: Implications for the Organization of Postsecondary Education and the Meaning of the Baccalaureate Presentation to."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Community College Baccalaureate: Implications for the Organization of Postsecondary Education and the Meaning of the Baccalaureate Presentation to CMU Class at Humber College Prepared by: Michael L. Skolnik University of Toronto

2 Agenda 1) The binary system in postsecondary education 2) Pressures for change: increased demand for the baccalaureate 3) Emergence of the CCB in Canada and the U.S. 4) Implications for the organization of PSE 5) What is a baccalaureate degree?

3 The Binary System 1. Two distinct sectors – issue of names 2. Sectors differentiated mainly by authority to award the baccalaureate (other things associated with that difference – research, governance, autonomy) 3. College programs either subordinate to (junior college) or independent of (technical institute) the university

4 Pressures for Change: Increased Demand for the Baccalaureate Increased demand for the baccalaureate in general Increased demand for applied baccalaureates Increased educational requirements for many jobs that colleges have prepared people for Governments concerned about baccalaureate attainment Concern about barriers to degree completion for college graduates – especially in particular locations and programs

5 Extent of the CCB in North America Provinces/StatesInst’sPrograms Canada432135 2010 U.S. 20041121129 U.S. 20101854465 Source: U.S, Russell (2010); Canada: PEQAB, BC Education Planner, and college web sites.

6 Let’s go on a tour Alberta British Columbia Florida Ontario Washington Arizona Michigan

7 Alberta: Responding to Industry First community college; open university; transfer agency; accreditation board Applied degrees 1995, “3 + 1”, Petroleum Technology one of the first Expansion of applied stopped after creation of the CAQC Institutions with the most applied degrees became universities in 2010

8 British Columbia: Access! Concern: degree completion for place-bound graduates of two year programs Solution: university-colleges in Kamloops, Okanagan, Abbotsford, Nanaimo, – and later, and originally restricted to applied degrees, Surrey Later, colleges allowed applied degrees Nursing programs in some colleges University-colleges (+1) become universities 2010 Moratorium on new programs

9 Florida: uses colleges to “catch up” 49 th in baccalaureate attainment in 1990s Mismatch of population and public universities – Miami, St. Petersburg, and rural areas Has become largest provider of CCB in U.S. – 18 institutions, 113 programs, 21 in Teacher Education and Nursing New “state college” sector of 9 former community colleges An example of collaboration: FGCU/Edison

10 Ontario Concerns about access, choice, & lack of progress on transfer led to PSECE Act, 2000 Trend toward concentration: a few colleges offer several, others offer a few niche programs Probably the biggest question: will Ontario give some colleges a different designation, like BC, Alberta, and Florida?

11 Washington: trying the inverted bachelor’s degree The problems of transfer from applied associate degree programs - course transfer - curriculum sequence The inverted (aka “upside-down”) degree: Bachelor of Professional Studies or Bachelor of Applied Studies The state still went ahead with a pilot project in which colleges award the baccalaureate

12 Arizona: the struggle continues Huge projected growth in demand relative to capacity of state universities, poor record of serving other areas of the state Colleges seeking CCB since 1997, universities strongly opposed Universities’ offer to address the problem of transfer from applied associate degree programs in colleges has not worked out – anyone remember the Port Hope Accord?

13 Michigan Stagnant economy, the Cherry Commission, the applied baccalaureate, and under-served areas Colleges seeking programs in such areas as concrete technology, maritime technology, and nursing Bill passed one house in September, 2010 Universities say there is no need – but remember Battle Creek!

14 Academic drift, mission creep? Yes, if mission defined solely in terms of highest academic credential awarded; No, if mission defined more broadly Instead of having two sectors differentiated by the authority to award bachelor’s degrees, focus on two sectors differentiated by the characteristics in the next slide

15 Re-conceptualizing the binary system with colleges that.... Are more applied and work-force oriented - in programs - in pedagogy Provide more open, economical access - serve students of more varied academic background, income, and location Are more teaching-focused - provide a more supportive environment for at-risk students Are more responsive to societal needs – have less autonomy from government

16 What is a baccalaureate? Our system of degrees dates back to 12 th century in Europe Bachelor’s degree was a step on the way to Magister or Doctor which were necessary for admission to the guild of teachers Since then, the baccalaureate has become a more significant indicator of readiness in a wide range of fields of work

17 What is a baccalaureate?, 2 The content, conditions and requirements for a baccalaureate have always been determined by consensus of those with the relevant expertise and authority – normally it has been what those who have the authority to award it say it is! Colleges in Canada have shown that they can satisfy the Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework (Council of Ministers of Education, Canada)

18 What is a baccalaureate?, 3 The important issue is not whether colleges can adapt their baccalaureate programs to the consensual view of what constitutes a baccalaureate that presently exists within the university community, but whether membership in the group that determines that consensus can be broadened sufficiently, resulting a more flexible conception of what a baccalaureate is that is consistent with college values and strengths.

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