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Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience 2nd Int.Nuclear Chemistry Congress, Cancún 2008 Fedor MACÁŠEK Bratislava.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience 2nd Int.Nuclear Chemistry Congress, Cancún 2008 Fedor MACÁŠEK Bratislava."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience 2nd Int.Nuclear Chemistry Congress, Cancún 2008 Fedor MACÁŠEK Bratislava

2 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 2 My background Moscow State University - physical chemistry and radiochemistry M.S. 1956-1961 Comenius University - nuclear chemistry, separation chemistry 1961-2004 BIONT,a.s. radiopharmaceuticals, quality manager 2005-

3 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 3 Teacher’s questions Is nuclear chemistry an ugly child of 20th century chemistry? Does nuclear chemistry contribute to the general science knowledge? Are nuclear chemistry techniques valuable for present science? Does nuclear industry need radiochemists? Is nuclear chemistry knowledge any use for public?

4 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 4 Evils Hiroshima Goiânia Chernobyl Tokai Mura Litvinenko

5 Industrial accidents were mostly caused by human factor: the lack of deeper (if any) knowledge of nuclear phenomena !!! Evils

6 Even the simple driving a car needs training and a license ! (and still more than 3000 people die on the world's roads every day !!!)

7 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 7 What was the contribution of chemists to (nuclear) science?

8 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 8 Hall of Fame M.Curie-Sklodowska Frederic Soddy Frederic & Irene Joliot-Curie Harold Urey Liza Meitner & Otto Hahn` Glenn Seaborg

9 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 9 Hall of Fame George Hevesy Vitalyi Khlopin Joseph Starik Fritz Strassmann Fridrich Paneth Ivo Zvára Albert Ghiorso Willard Libby

10 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 10 What is the position of nuclear chemistry within chemistry ?

11 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 11 Behind the boarder of classical chemistry accounts for the chemical consequences of proton-neutron composition of atom nucleus describes the processes of alteration of chemical elements, and consequently their compounds. considers chemical element a priori not as the simplest and stable chemical substance (entity) but as a mixture of isotopes, and a substance which internal energy consists from both electronic and nuclear component

12 Curricula

13 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 13 Euro-baccalaureate Nuclear Chemistry I 1. Properties of atomic nuclei. 2. Radioactive decay. 3. Natural radioactivity ( 40 K, U, Th, Ra, Rn, 14 C). 4. Physical, chemical and biological properties of ionizing radiation. 5. Measurement of radiation. (Understanding radioactivity and ionizing radiation)

14 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 14 1. Excitation functions and rate of simple nuclear reactions. 2.Nuclear activation and NAA. Preparation of radionuclides in reactor and on cyclotron. 3.Nucleogenesis, pp-, α,-, s- and r-processes. 4. Separation of isotopes. Isotope analysis. 5.Chain fission reaction. Nuclear reactors. Fuel cycle. Transuranium elements. Nuclear waste processing. 6.Isotope exchange. Isotope indicators and labelled compounds. `Euro-baccalaureate Nuclear Chemistry II (Isotope composition of elements and its change)

15 Sources

16 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 16 Textbooks - Classics Sklodowska-Curie 1910 Soddy 1911 Hahn 1936 Hevesy, Paneth 1938 Wahl, Bonner 1951 Haissinski 1957 Kamen 1957 Friedlander, Kennedy, Miller 1964 Choppin, Rydberg 1980 Lieser 1995

17 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 17 Textbooks - Classics In my student time: Friedlander, Kennedy 1955

18 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 18 Textbooks - Classics Choppin, Liljenzin, Rydberg 1980, 1995, 2001

19 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 19 Textbooks – a newest one Loveland, Morrissey, Seaborg 2006

20 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 20Textbooks by Professor Walter D. Loveland

21 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 21 Textbooks - Russia Старик И.Е. Основы радиохимии. Л., Наука, 1969. Нефедов В.Д., Текстер Е.Н., Торопова М.А. Радиохимия. М., ВШ, 1987

22 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 22 Textbooks - Czechoslovakia Běhounek F., Heyrovský J., 1931 Majer V., 1942, 1961 Tölgyessy J., Varga Š., 1976 Navratil O., Hála J., Kopunec R., Macášek F., Mikulaj V., Lešetický L., 1992

23 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 23 Slovakia - for teachers Nuclear Chemistry for Chemistry Teachers (since 1962!)

24 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 24 Slovakia - for teachers Nuclear Chemistry for Chemistry Teachers (since 1962!) 24 hrs on the 3rd year of study

25 Practice

26 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 26 Break-through into life sciences necessary: (remember Leo Szilárd: when opposed to the use of all nuclear weapons he devoted himself to studying molecular biology !) General science progress

27 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 27 Radiochemical practice Natural radioactivity assay (potassium, radon) ? Biochemical cycles ? Non-specific DNA labeling ? Break-through into the life sciences practice is necessary:

28 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 28 Radiochemical practice In sixtieths: A TESLA digital counter BM353a for labs (about $1000) GM counter for secondary schools For $10 without power supply!

29 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 29 Radiochemical practice GM-counters GCK-01 Kit: Ne + Halogen filled, with a 2mg/cm 2 mica end window Detects alpha > 3.0 MeV, beta > 50 KeV, gamma > 7 KeV. Needs in a simple equipment for training (purchase in dosens?!): about $400 www.imagesco.com/geiger/digital-geiger-counter.html

30 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 30 Radiochemical practice Liquid scintillation counters Needs in a simple equipment for training (purchase in dosens?!): Triathler for 3 H, 14 C, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S optional gamma counting NaI well, preset 125 I, 51 Cr, 58 Co still $11-13 thousands !

31 State-of-the-art

32 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 32 1) materials of nuclear purity (uranium, thorium, heavy water, zirconium, graphite etc.) 2) recovery of fission materials ( 239 Pu from uranium and 233 U from thorium) 3) materials for fusion reactors (deuterium from water, tritium from lithium) 4) utilization or transmutation of long-lived fission and activation products and transuranium elements 5) reliable fixation of radioactive wastes Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

33 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 33 All these topics of nuclear energy cycle should be reflected in curricula of all chemistry majors Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

34 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 34 Teaching challenges More attention to progressive applications: 1) radioactive tracers for computer tomography - SPECT and PET (radiopharmaceuticals) 2) radioactive tracers for biochemical and physiological processes, especially for pharmacodynamics and toxicology

35 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 35 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1971

36 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 36 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1990

37 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 37 „Status of Nuclear Science Education and Teaching“ Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1992

38 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 38 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 2003

39 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 39 Many large universities lost their leadership in nuclear science education, and in large extent their position was replaced by effort of research institutions, nuclear societies, and web learning. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

40 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 40 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era since 2000 3 of 22 without response (?)

41 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 41 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

42 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 42 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

43 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 43 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era

44 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 44 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 2008: none (Michigan State University) 2008: none

45 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 45 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era a very passive approach !

46 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 46 Teaching chemistry in nuclear era an active approach !

47 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 47 Non-science major

48 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 48 Science Major CERN

49 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 49 Science Major Orsay

50 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 50 Hungary - G.Hevesy‘s country Budapest University of Technology and Economics Very progressive and equilibrated curricula of nuclear sciences ! http://www.enen-assoc.org/data/document/ne_hungary.pdf

51 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 51 Ozersk / Озёрск (Маяк) Chemical technology of contemporary energetics materials

52 Challenges

53 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 53 Specialists breeding Recent nuclear power reactors technology will probably need more: specialists on cooling systems and spent fuel storage safety improvements specialists on radioactive wastes experts on reactors decommisisioning …

54 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 54 Specialists breeding UK Report 2003 UK: a gap of 500 graduates per year !

55 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 55 General science progress Nuclear power proliferation badly needs: co-operation with molecular biologists in ivestigation of low radiation dosis effects (treshold dose problem) co-operation with botanists and microbiologists on new approach to soils decontamination and remediation a new approach to internal contamination

56 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 56 General science progress co-operation with molecular biologists

57 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 57 Targeted education Early reproduction of knowledge in new regional university centers Call to Worldatom, UNICEF and IAEA for common effort Establishment of educational section within the Nuclear Chemistry Society

58 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 58 Targeted education Example: IAEA RCA Project

59 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 59 Targeted education Example: European Nuclear Society

60 Role of nuclear chemistry in general education

61 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 61 „ Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.“ M.Sklodowska-Curie

62 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 62 Nuke in dark colors These cooling towers are used as an expressive symbolic presentation of nuclear power evil. There is nothing specifically nuclear about them. So what? Is ethics unimportant?

63 To see atomic energy only as a means of destruction is as trivial and absurd... like to regard electricity primarily as a source of energy for the electric chair Piotr Kapitsa Nuke in dark colors

64 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 64 Nuke in bright colors We ought a lot to our students and children to explain that „nuclear“ is neither a dirty word nor a dirty practice. High professionalism and art of assertiveness must present.

65 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 65 One good example from Finland (1998): http://www.kolumbus.fi/wahls/booklist.htm

66 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 66 and another one (USA, 2003):

67 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 67 and another one (Russia, 2008):

68 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 68Hungary Dr. Csaba Sükösd: “Lately it has been recognised fortunately that it is important to include some basic nuclear knowledge already in secondary education.“

69 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 69 How can you form goodness, except through love? How can people be made free, if they are not allowed to live in freedom? How can they made useful without a scientific knowledge of the forces of nature? José Martí Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education 24, 1/2, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, Paris, 1994, p. 107–19

70 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 70Hungary Dr. Csaba Sükösd‘s Story:

71 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008 71 Let’s start from the youth...


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