Presentation on theme: "Acknowledgments Research Mentor: Dr. Paul Silverman Funding: Bridges to the Baccalaureate- The University of Montana Other: Sarah Lawlay Introduction Parents."— Presentation transcript:
Acknowledgments Research Mentor: Dr. Paul Silverman Funding: Bridges to the Baccalaureate- The University of Montana Other: Sarah Lawlay Introduction Parents have a substantial influence on their offspring. Are this simply genetics, environment and the result of child rearing? Or is it all of these things? The main focus of this study is how individual differences in children and parents interact with basic developmental processes to produce particular outcomes (Holden, 1997). Following a strategy suggested by Bogaard (1976), a study was designed to assess the possibility of a multigenerational pattern of Child- Rearing Practices by assessing the disciplinary and guidance tactics of adults of child-rearing age. By using natural collectivity of undergraduate subjects as well as non- students this strategy avoids a subject selection bias (Zaidi, Knutson, Mehm.1989). In order to test this proposal, we are developing a standardized measure of parents’ Child Guidance Techniques. Parents and non-parents are administered a series of questions using hypothetical child behavior problems, such as, “Your child refuses to buckle up, and/or stay buckled up while in the car. What do you do?” After administration of many of these interviews the results will be assessed. This information will be used to establish descriptive normative data for the Child Guidance Interview, to produce different norm groups, and to provide information relevant to testing concurrent construct validity of the Child Guidance Interview. Abstract This study was designed to develop a measure of parental competence based on an interview in which adults are asked to respond to hypothetical child guidance problems. Four adults consisting of 2 parents and 2 non-parents were interviewed and their responses were categorized as "appropriate" and inappropriate" as well as more specific types. The results of this study indicate that the interview produced more appropriate than inappropriate responses. The study will continue adding additional participants. The interview will eventually be used in clinical settings to identify parental strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods Participants: Overall, we had four participants. Two were male students, one a non-parent and one a parent. The other two were female students, also one a non-parent and one a parent. Procedures: Determined if the participant was a student or non-student and either a parent or non-parent. Institutional Review Board (IRB) Protocol (The University of Montana's IRB Policy requires that all research projects involving human subjects be approved by the University of Montana IRB.) Demographic Questionnaire ( identifies children’s ages and genders) Interview Questions ( the interviewer describes hypothetical scenarios in which a child behaves in ways that require adult guidance)( Because there are 3 follow up questions after each scenario you will have more responses then participants) Debriefing Statement and Service Referral List File all data in appropriate file folder Results Parental responses were divided into “Appropriate” and “Inappropriate” types. Appropriate responses are responses that reflect good parental practices according to most child development experts; like talking with your child about the problem. Inappropriate responses reflect parental practices that are considered to be potentially harmful to the child according to most child development experts ;like yelling at the child about the problem. The following frequencies were identified for 3 adults, each of whom were given 45 opportunities to respond (15 child guidance scenarios, each with 3 follow-up questions). Response Type Response Frequency Appropriate responses Aversive consequence 22% Responses that promote internalization28% Avoiding or reducing the likelihood of problem behavior10% Non-aversive consequence 1% Recognizing developmentally appropriate child behaviors 4% Seeking consultation 7% Inappropriate responses Aversive consequence 13% Role reversal or personalization 1% Expression of helplessness and/or abdication of responsibility 3% Odd or illogical response 1% Denial of a problem 5% Overestimating child’s developmental competence 0% Modeling inappropriate behavior or reasoning 2% Discussion and Conclusions The four interviews that have been conducted are not enough to make comparisons between parents and non- parents. In order to make these comparisons we need to collect more data. At this time the categories and subcategories of responses based on the interview results are being revised to better correspond with the results. We have, however, reported the frequencies of the different types of responses. In the graphs below you can see that responses that promote internalization was the most frequent response type under appropriate responses with 61 occurrences. You are also able to see that there are more appropriate responses than inappropriate responses. As this research continues we expect to add more participants, identify response types that are actually related to the child’s well-being or to the adult’s own history of being parented, and identify whether response types actually predict or reflect the likelihood an adult will be abusive to a child. An addition task is to use other measures of parental competence to determine whether the CGI is a valid measure. We also hope to learn whether the interview procedure and response categories are appropriate for use in cultures such as Native American tribes, or whether another type of assessment should be developed. Development of the Child Guidance Interview Literature Cited Holden, W. George.1997.Parents and the dynamics of child rearing: pgs.81-114 Zaidi Lisa, Knutson John, Mehm John.1989. Transgenerational Patterns of Abusive Parenting: Analog and Clinical Tests Vol. 15, pgs.137-152. Bogaard H.1976.Relationships between aggressive behavior in children and parent perception of child behavior: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon. Brittany St. Pierre University of Montana, Project IBS-CORE Undergraduate Research Fellow Figure 1. is an example of the chart used to make sure we get an equal amount of participants under each category. Figure 2&3 are charts that show the number of responses in each category under appropriate and inappropriate.