2 Aims of today’s tutorial In two hours time I willKnow what the individual investigation is, what it needs to relate to, how long it should be.Know the 4 stages of the investigation and how each stage is assessed.Have looked at different types of primary evidence collection and will have picked some which will benefit my investigation.
3 Spend 5 minutes answering these questions with the person beside you Quick questionsSpend 5 minutes answering these questions with the person beside youWhat does your investigation have to be based upon?What are the 4 stages of the investigation?Of the four stages which is the most important part?Does the investigation have to be a comparison between two examples e.g. How does the regeneration scheme in Cardiff compare to that of the one in Melbourne?Does the investigation have to be a written presentation?
4 What does your investigation have to be based upon? It can come from any part of your core subjectsWales, Europe and the worldWork-related EducationPersonal and social educationOr from your options ( your subjects/courses).Or it can relate to a combination of both your core and options ( killing two birds with the one stone)e.g. What are the effects of flooding on people?A comparison of the effects of flooding on the people of Wales, the Netherlands and Bangladesh.StudyingGeographyat ASWales, EuropeAnd the world(The impact of economic and technological change)
5 Steps Develop a plan strategy for carrying out the investigation. 2. Identify sources, collect and record data appropriate to the question.3. Present the data collected in appropriate forms4.Evaluate and draw conclusions based on the finings of the investigation
6 1. Plan your investigation At this stage you should consider how you will present your final piece of work.Simple – a single question or hypothesisDon’t make it complicated as this will make it harder to answer.Measurable – can it be measured?Will you be able to go out and collect primary data to help you answer the questionAchievable – in the time givenWill you be able to collect, present, analyse, draw conclusions and evaluate the investigation chosen ion the time given?Realistic - can it be done? Avoid what if questionsEnsure there is secondary information available on your investigation and if your investigation requires something to help you answer the question ensure it is realistic to carry out e.g. Interviews from Assembly Ministers in Wales and members of the Amsterdam Government???Time – how long will it takeEnsure you have enough time to collect information especially primary data – if you need to do surveys, questionnaires, interviews make sure you do them early on in the investigation.If you fail to plan – you plan to fail!Choose something that interests you orrelates to what you might do in the future.It will make it more enjoyable andyou may be able to use it again or referto it in an interview or personal statementor even use it as part of a portfolio !Remember be SMART!!!
7 Breakdown into sections Using sub- questions /sections, makes answeringthe main question a lot easier as it gives you guidance onwhat to include in each part in a logical orderBreakdown into sectionsExtent of the problemCauses of homelessnessHOMELESSNESSEffects of homelessness on those involved/ society generallyWhat is being done/could be done about homelessness
8 Any type of investigation can be broken down into the following 4 sub-questions What exactly is the issue?What are the causes?What are the effects?What are the solutions?
9 Task on planningIn pairs or threes (no more) read through the planning of each of the 3 investigations and answer these 3 questions.What do all of these plans have in common?Out of the three which doesn’t empahasise the planning stage as well as the other 2?Out of the 3 which one does your group think will get the highest mark for the planning stage?Note: This investigationpassed but only barely.Use it only as a guidelineson how you can do animproved version of yourown.Now use the assessment criteria (on page 2 of your note pages)to assess the planning part of the investigation‘What can be done to reduce the rates of childhood obesity’
10 Sample 1 Comparative This candidate therefore got a Good pass Relates to her option courseof health and social care.It also relates to the coreas it has a theme of PSE.How they went aboutdeciding on the issue.(This pupil shows that s/heresearched the topic and thendecided on the question).How these sources willbe analysed is not mentioned herebut is shown in the next part underAnalysis so the candidate will notHave lost any marks.Sub-questionsshows thoroughplanningShows the range ofprimary and secondarysources that will be used.This candidate therefore got aGood pass
11 interests the candidate Sample 2Anorexia WalesThematicHow s/he went aboutdeciding the InvestigationS/he hasn’t identified the range of primaryand secondary sources s/he planned to useand how these sources would be analysed.Therefore this candidate only got a barepass in the planning stage.This is something you really need to avoidas there is a thin line between a barepass and fail!!!Relates to option subject –Psychology and core subjectof PSEShows thoruogh planning.S/he researched another topicBut realised it wasn’t achievableor realistic in the time given forthe investigation.Shows it is a topic thatinterests the candidate
12 Sample 3 All criteria of the planning stage has been met therefore this candidate received a Good pass.Sample 3How s/he went aboutdeciding on the issueand title of theInvestigation.Shows thoroughplanningOutlines the primaryand secondaryresources s/heplans to collectSays howthese sources willbe analysed
13 2. Identify sources Primary data Secondary data (which has been analysed by someone else)Books/JournalsNewspapers/MagazinesInternetAny surveys, questionnaires carried out by someone else.You will need a combination ofPrimary data(You will analyse yourself)QuestionnairesSurveysSketchesDiagramsPhotographsEnsure you only use information thatwill help you answer the question youare investigating.Take into consideration who haswrote/carried out/analysed theSecondary data(esp data from the internet)and why they have done so.Even statistics can be biased (unfair).
15 1.What do you want to know?Be clear about the goal of the questionnaire. Write down some questions you want your questionnaire to address/ answer.What do you want to find out?What information do you require - Opinions, Preferences, Ideas, Priorities, etc?On an investigation on the success of redevelopment of an area of Swansea (SA1),in order to design a questionaire I first had to come up with the questions I wantedthe questionaire to address. I came up with the following questions by looking closely atThe sub-questions of my investigationHow successful have recent changes been?2.What reaction do residents and visitors have to these changes?3.New jobs have been created, how else has the economic environment changed?4.SA1 was designed to be a “self sufficent community” – is this the case?Find out about car usage, local services/entertainment.5.How, if all have perceptions to the area changed?
16 2. What is the audience? Identify who should be interviewed? What age group or group in society e.g. Children (need parental permission) teenagers, adults, parents, senior citizens.How will you select the sample? Will it be:Random sampling ( no system)Systematic (every 10th adult)How big should the sample be?How many surveys do you want completed for you to get enough information to help you in your investigation - 20, 40 etc.?
17 3. Audience + Purpose = Design How should you write the questions? What will you do with the responses?Have you included one open-ended type question?E.g. Why do you think that teenage pregnancies is so high in Wales?Have you included a copy of the questionnaire in the appendix of the investigation?
18 4. Gather Information Have you completed the survey? Have you collated responses using tally charts? (see example below)Have you recorded results in a spreadsheet? (Excel)Have you included a copy of the spreadsheet in the appendixof the investigation?Tally sheetLocation: Outside Sainsburys in Tenby Date:05/ Time: 11am Sample size: 20Questions:1. Male //////Female//////////////2. Under// /// /////// ///// ///3. Yes No/// /////////////////
19 5. How will this information be used? Have you used the most appropriate chart, graph ortable to present the results?Have you used the evidence from the questionnaire toform a conclusion about local/Wales perspective of theIndividual Investigation?If you have spent time planning the questionnaire, giving them out and tallyingyour results ensure you use your results (evidence) in drawing conclusionsto your investigation.Don’t just stick in the questionnaire and charts to show the results and not discussfindings.
20 Types of QuestionsTwo important aspects are structure of the questionsand the types of response formats for each question.There are many different types of questions.The most common are closed and open questions.
21 What are the potential problems in the shopping survey below? To personalTo many open ended questions – howwould you represent the results?
22 Closed (or multiple choice) questions Respondent choose an option and are asked to tick orcircle the chosen answer.These questions provide data which is easy topresent in the form of a chart, graph or table.
23 Two choices questions This type should be limited to only 1 or 2. Did you watch television at all yesterday?Yes / NoDo not present in pie chart or bar chart, juststate a fraction or percentage.E.g. Only 13% of the population surveyed new that Wales had thepregnancy in Western Europe
24 Multiple Choice questions Which of these shops do you prefer?Next / River Island / Top Shop / PrimarkPresent as bar chart if interested in howmany for each option but use a pie chartif proportion of the whole is important.
25 Number scales Make sure categories do not overlap, they must be mutually exclusive.1. How old are you?Under – – – – or more2. How often do you watch TV on a typical day?Less than 1 hour – 3 hours more than 3 hoursPresent as bar chart if interested in how many for eachoption but a pie chart if proportion of the whole isimportant.
26 Rank order Please indicate, in rank order, your preferred chocolate bar, putting 1 next to your favouritethrough to 5 for your least favourite.Double Decker ……..Crunchie ……..Wispa ……..Mars Bar ……..Creme Egg ……..Present as a table or component bar chart
27 Agreement scale 4 options ensure a choice is made, with 5 options many choose the middle.How much do you agree with the followingstatement?Assessment by coursework is easier thanassessment by examination.Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree
28 Rating scale 1. How would you rate this product? Excellent Good Fair Poor2. On a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is not interested at all and 5 is very interested.How interested are you in using this exhibit in anexhibition?Present as bar chart if interested in how many for eachoption but a pie chart if proportion of the whole isimportant.
29 Open-ended questions Respondents answer in their own words. These questions can be difficult to analyse.Should be at the end of the questionnaire.
30 What are your favourite TV programmes? (Please specify their titles)What do you think are the main causes of racism?
31 PlagiarismIf you copy a piece of writing from someone else and present it as being your own work, this is called plagiarism.From the website of Austin Community College Library.austincc.edu/gen-info/facplagiarism.htm
32 Warning!If your Individual Investigation includes work copied from someone else and you have not properly acknowledged or referenced it, you will fail.
33 The same is true of copying another person's ideas or other creative work. Even if you get permission you must always acknowledge the source of your information.
34 Provide references when you… Use any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge;Use another person’s idea, opinion, or theory;Use quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; orParaphrase another person’s spoken or written words.
35 How are sources usually referenced or cited? As you go along e.g. following each quote usedIn footnotesIn a bibliography
36 How are sources usually referenced or cited? Always put quotes in quotation marks. This marks them as not your own words.
37 ParaphrasingAlthough you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still acknowledge the source of the information.Be sure you are not just rearranging or replacing a few words.
38 Do you have to provide references for every fact you use? Obvious facts readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered "common knowledge."They are not protected by copyright laws so do not have to be referenced.e.g. ‘The President of the United States isBarak Obama.’
39 Using the internetYou must remember that it is important to acknowledge information you find on the internet in the same way as other sources and not just cut and paste it into your work.The same is true if a writer wants to use an image from a website.0311_techcheats/source/2.htm
40 Always add a bibliography A bibliography is a list of all the sources you have used in the process of researching your Individual Investigation.schol.wordpress.com
41 You could consider using an annotated bibliography An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source.schol.wordpress.com
42 Remember - always provide references for your sources! within the textin the bibliography at the end.
43 ….and finallyDo not leave your work until the last minute, in order to avoid panic plagiarism.