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Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2. Important Terminology Epi- : Inter- : Os- : Pseud- : Squam- : Strat- : Chondro : -cyte : Simple:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2. Important Terminology Epi- : Inter- : Os- : Pseud- : Squam- : Strat- : Chondro : -cyte : Simple:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2

2 Important Terminology Epi- : Inter- : Os- : Pseud- : Squam- : Strat- : Chondro : -cyte : Simple:

3 Epi- : “above; covering” Inter- : “between” Os- : “bone tissue” Pseud- : “false” Squam- : “flattened” Strat- : “layered” Chondro : “cartilage” -cyte : “cell” Simple : one-layer Important Terminology

4 Section 1 Introduction to Tissues Tissues- a group of similar cells that perform specific functions Between cells: nonliving extracellular material Four basic types of tissue: Tissue TypeTissue Function Epithelial TissueCovering Connective TissueSupport Muscle TissueMovement Nervous TissueControl



7 Section 2 Epithelial Tissue Covers all free body surfaces Anchored to connective tissue Functions in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion Classified by SHAPE and NUMBER of layers

8 3 “layers” of Epithelium Simple—One layer Pseudostratified—appears to be more than one layer Stratified—two or more layers of cells


10 Pseudostratified

11 3 “shapes” of Epithelia 1.Squamous – thin and flattened 2.Cuboidal – cube-shaped 3.Columnar – tall and “column-shaped”


13 Squamous cells look a lot like a fried egg

14 Cuboidal cells are shaped like ice cubes

15 Columnar Cells look like columns

16 Simple squamous epithelium – Helps gas exchange – Lines blood and lymph vessels – Found in alveoli of lungs Simple cuboidal epithelium – Used for secretion and absorption in kidneys and other glands Simple columnar epithelium – Lines uterus and digestive tracts – Helps to secrete mucous – Absorbs nutrients

17 Pseudostratified columnar – Lines respiratory passages – Protects and clears airways – Moves mucus Stratified squamous – Protection – Outer layer of skin; epidermis

18 Honor’s Only Stratified cuboidal – Protection – Lines larger ducts of glands Transitional epithelium – Protection and ability to contract – Inner lining of bladder

19 Glandular epithelium Exocrine glands—secrete into ducts that open to surface Endocrine glands—secrete into tissue fluid or blood

20 Types of Exocrine Glands Classified by how they secrete their products 1.Merocrine gland – release water, protein-rich fluids by exocytosis 2.Apocrine gland – lose small portions of their cell bodies during secretion 3.Holocrine gland – entire cell lyses (disintegrates) during secretion



23 Chapter 5 Section 3

24 Connective Tissues Characteristics and Functions: – Connects – Supports – Transports – A lot of extracellular material between cells

25 Categories: 1.Loose connective tissue 2.Adipose tissue 3.Dense connective tissue 4.Cartilage 5.Bone 6.Blood

26 Tissue Fibers 1.Collagenous - composed of collagen - very strong 2.Elastic - composed of microfribrils -very elastic and stretchy 3. Reticular - provides delicate support

27 1. Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue: – Forms thin membrane between organs – Beneath skin and between muscles – Components: Fibroblast cells – produce fibers collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers Macrophages – phagocytes (eat debris and bacteria)

28 2. Adipose Tissue: Stores fat in droplets Acts as cushion and insulation

29 3. Dense (Fibrous) Connective Tissue : – Made up of strong, collagenous fibers – Found in tendons and ligaments Tendons = muscle to bone Ligaments = bone to bone

30 4. Cartilage: Provides supportive framework Lacks a direct blood supply; slow to heal Chondrocytes – cartilage cells found in spaces called LACUNAE 3 Types: 1.Hyaline cartilage – most common type; found on ends of bones and in nose 2.Elastic cartilage – very flexible; found in ears and parts of larynx 3.Fibrocartilage – very dense; forms padding between vertebrae and knees (high impact areas)

31 Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage

32 5. Bone (Osseous): – Contains mineral salts (Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) and collagenous fibers (flexibility) – Osteocytes: bone cells – Active tissue that heals rapidly – Organized in round osteons

33 6. Blood: Used for transportation Components: red cells (erythrocytes) white cells (leukocytes) Platelets (thrombocytes) - clotting Suspended in plasma

34 Chapter 5 Sections 4 and 5

35 Section 4 Muscle Tissue General Characteristics: -Expand and contract -Help with body movement Three types: -Skeletal -Smooth -Cardiac

36 Skeletal Muscle VOLUNTARY Attached to bones Cells are long and threadlike and multinucleated Contract when stimulated by nerve impulses Has STRIATIONS Image: Skeletal Muscle Fibers

37 Smooth Muscle INVOLUNTARY Found in walls of hollow organs (stomach, intestines, bladder, etc) No striations Ex: Helps move food through digestive system

38 Cardiac Muscle INVOLUNTARY Found only in the heart Cells are striated and branched Has intercalated discs Uses rhythmic contractions

39 Section 5 Nervous Tissue Neurons – nerve cells Neuroglia – support cells Found in: – Brain – Spinal cord – Peripheral nerves Help send signals to other neurons or muscles Coordinates and regulates body activities

40 Chapter 5 Section 6 Types of Membrane

41 Membrane: thin layers of epithelial and connective tissue surrounding and protecting organs Four types of Membranes: 1.Serous 2.Mucous 3.Cutaneous 4.Synovial

42 1.Serous membrane -Lines cavities that lack openings to the outside -Filled with fluid -Ex: surrounds the heart 2.Mucous membrane -Lines body cavities opening to the outside such as digestive, respiratory, and reproductive -Secrete mucous -Ex: within the nose and mouth

43 3. Cutaneous membrane - the Skin 4. Synovial membrane – lines the joints – made up completely of connective tissue

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