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Preparing: O-2215 Planning, Briefing and Critical Factors for Success Preparing for an Imaging Sortie 1 Prepare Conduct Transfer Bag & Tag Publish.

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Presentation on theme: "Preparing: O-2215 Planning, Briefing and Critical Factors for Success Preparing for an Imaging Sortie 1 Prepare Conduct Transfer Bag & Tag Publish."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparing: O-2215 Planning, Briefing and Critical Factors for Success Preparing for an Imaging Sortie 1 Prepare Conduct Transfer Bag & Tag Publish

2 Preparing: O-2215 Agenda Determine Customer Requirements and Expectations Mission Staff Briefing Sortie Planning – Planning Considerations – Potential Imaging Patterns Imaging Sortie Techniques Critical Factors for Success 2

3 Preparing: O-2215 Preparation The key to a successful imaging mission is preparation, planning, patience and practice! – Use consistent processes for repeatable results – Do your homework before you fly – Train like you fly, fly like you train 3

4 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (1) Know the customer requirements on your imaging content and deliverables – Get it right the first time – Meet/exceed customer expectations – Saves time & cost 4

5 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (2) If customer requirements aren’t specified: – The mission briefer (or aircrew) must ask enough questions to ensure the customer gets what they really want If no further info is available: – Develop potential scenarios on deliverables by applying your experience and “Best Practices” – Obtain consensus on mission requirements within your team 5

6 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (3) Examples of information you need: What and where is the target? – Get the exact location of the target(s). – Get a good verbal description of the target How should the target and surrounding features be imaged? – Single target images or area/timed images for mosaic – Single feature of interest or collection of features – Close ups, wide perspectives – Areas to include, surrounding features, infrastructure, etc. – Altitude and/or lookdown angle requirements 6

7 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (4) Does the customer care about lighting conditions over the target area? – The customer may not want photos taken under a heavy overcast, or in early morning or late afternoon light What information do they want to accompany the images?, e.g.: – Altitude (MSL or AGL, or both) – Latitude and Longitude – Time (local or Zulu) – Distance from target (nautical or statue miles) – Direction to target (e.g., looking South) – Angle to target (e.g., 45°) 7

8 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (5) What image format ( JPG, TIF, Raw) & quality (Hi, Med, Low) do they want? – This also helps you determine how large (or how many) media cards you will need for the sortie Do they mind if you crop images, if needed? – E.g. cropping out unwanted features – wheel, etc. Do they mind if you adjust the image, if needed? – E.g. adjusting the image brightness, contrast, due to poor lighting conditions, etc. 8 Getting the requirements right helps prevent you having to re-fly

9 Preparing: O-2215 Briefing – Customer Requirements (6) Do they want you to add text or symbols to the photos with some of the above info? Is CAP branding (e.g. CAP Shield) OK? How do they want you to name the image files? – E.g. subject, time, sequence number, etc.? How do they want you to send the photos? If Email? – May affect photo format & quality (file sizes) – Addressing, Subject and remarks, CC/BCC, etc.? – Call after sending? – Any anti-spam issues? 9

10 Preparing: O-2215 Mission Staff Briefing For complex missions, the mission staff may use a target control list to put together the briefing packages for the aircrews The staff should also be careful not to pair an inexperienced pilot with an inexperienced photographer In addition to the briefing items specific to the imaging mission, briefing information should include: – Terrain, obstacles and ground cover around the target (s) – Weather (local and target area) – Time format (local or Zulu) 10

11 Preparing: O-2215 Use of Target Cards For complex missions and multiple targets, target cards may be used to identify target names in a sequence of photos, etc. – 3x5 index cards (or similar) with the common name of each target – Written with sharpie or magic marker to make them more legible. – May contain coordinates, mission/sortie numbers, etc. The AP will photograph the applicable card just before taking photos of each target 11

12 Preparing: O-2215 Planning Considerations (1) Teamwork during the planning and execution – Planning the type of pattern(s) to be flown based on requirements, terrain and weather Target sketches may be required for briefing Capture all the data, e.g., lat/long of all entry and turning points – Reviewing the communications between the pilot and AP – Plan for an ID Pass (e.g. 10 mins) to assess the target/weather situation and make any planning adjustments Decide the best altitudes, angles and directions Determine any mission impacts like fuel stops, etc. – Plan for plenty of time to obtain photos Allow time for extra photo passes and aircraft repositioning 12 Maintain Flexibility to Adapt to Unplanned Conditions

13 Preparing: O-2215 Planning Considerations (2) Crew Roles – The AP is normally the Mission Commander when in vicinity of the target MP retains responsibility for the safety of the flight as Aircraft Commander – The MO assists in keeping a photo log, monitoring the scene, maintaining situational awareness and communications with ground assets, etc. 13

14 Preparing: O-2215 Google Earth An excellent tool to use for pre-flight briefing and post flight photo processing preparation – Pre-flight: Using satellite imagery, inspect target area, terrain features & plan photo patterns, etc. – Post-flight: confirm/refine target location and image direction – Import graphics (e.g. search grids, waypoints, etc.) via KML files – Import photos w/GPS location – Import & overlay flight tracks from GPS and/or G1000 SD data card – Export or email graphics, map images and geotagged photos – Can also overlay other maps such as VFR sectionals, USGS Topo, etc. 14

15 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Flight Pattern Types Four Square – Standard most stable pattern for most missions Birds Eye (Overview) – Shows details between structures or a long series of vertical photos along roads, etc. Circling – Good for quick shots of multiple targets or wide areas of damage for future mission planning purposes, etc. 45° Angle to Target – Used for fixed angle photos & based on customer requests 15

16 Preparing: O-2215 Pattern Execution Considerations Every imaging pattern starts with an “ID Pass” – Verify the target and note its coordinates (MO) – Determine best aircraft positioning & altitude for proper framing – Additional planning passes may be required Generally, an overview photo is required to provide the customer “context” of the target and its location relative to surrounding landmarks, etc. – Wide angle shot to show sufficient landmarks, ingress routes, etc. – May have to reposition aircraft for optimum view Aircraft Maneuvering – The approach to the imaging pattern / photo run should be stable & allow enough time to analyze approach for best framing results – Fly slowly enough for multiple photos Before leaving, capture any final photos, notes or sketches to aid in debriefing 16

17 Preparing: O-2215 Circling Imaging Flight Pattern 17 ½ NM ID Pass Alt > 1k ft AGL

18 Preparing: O-2215 Circling to Look for Best Shot (Intersection of two high-voltage electrical lines) 18

19 Preparing: O-2215 4-Square Imaging Flight Pattern 19 Flying technique for repeatable results on each leg (adjusting for wind): - Overfly target to record position - Fly pattern @ 90kts & use true HDG if possible - Select a cardinal direction & fly first leg - When abeam to pilot’s shoulder, start 35 sec counter - At 35 secs, begin right 270° standard turn for next leg & repeat 1,000 ft Offset Example

20 Preparing: O-2215 4-Square Imaging Pattern 20 Four perspectives on same target, 90° apart Usually at cardinal directions to help photo interpretation

21 Preparing: O-2215 Bird’s Eye Imaging Flight Pattern 21 Alt > 1k ft AGL 1)Circle target to find best altitude & direction for photo 2)Can use 10° bank and opposite rudder to increase available lookdown angle

22 Preparing: O-2215 Bird’s Eye of Gas Facility 22

23 Preparing: O-2215 45° Angle to Target Flight Pattern (or any fixed angle as required) 23 45  SlantRange AGLNM @ 45° 1,0000.23 1,5000.35 2,0000.46 2,5000.58 3,0000.70 2k ft SR 45  Lookdown Angle

24 Preparing: O-2215 45° of Stadium 24

25 Preparing: O-2215 Flexibility & Improvisation (1) Unique Missions may require flexibility & improvisation – Aircrew needs to adapt basic patterns to fit mission requirements or environmental conditions Examples: – Massive storm damage, e.g. hurricanes, tornados, heavy snowfall, flooding etc. – Natural disasters, e.g. fire, oil spills, etc. 25

26 Preparing: O-2215 Flexibility & Improvisation (2) These may be complex missions – Multiple crews and sorties to image same event on same day/successive days using the same equipment & aircraft – Photo capturing, logging and processing requirements very formalized & systematic Potentially 100,000+ images collected in a mosaic for a single event, e,g, Hurricane Sandy, Gulf Oil spill, etc. Processing tasks may be done by dedicated resources other than the aircrew – requires precise photo logging These may be single customer, survey missions – Pima County watershed / flood plane analysis – Specific photo requirements on track, sequencing, overlaps, delivery format, etc. 26

27 Preparing: O-2215 Flexibility & Improvisation (3) Can use special equipment & combinations of photo & visual search pattern techniques – Mosaic requirements 27 Timer, part of ADIS Kit Window Camera Mount

28 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Sortie Techniques (1) The first pass by the target is very important to confirm: – You are at the correct altitude (angle) for best results – You are looking in the right direction for best results – You are at the correct distance from the target – You are flying at the correct speed – The GPS is locked on and tracking (if applicable) If any of these conditions aren’t met: – Have the pilot turn around – Correct the problem – Redo the first pass 28 1,000 ft AGL 20  - 45  Camera Position Target Position > 1/2nm = 20  1/6nm = 45 

29 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Sortie Techniques (2) For a target shot, the MP must be as close as possible to the target while still allowing the AP to properly frame the target: – At 1kt AGL, typically offset by 1kft to 3kft horizontally (20° to 45° lookdown angle), zoom <135mm – If at 3kft offset you are too close to the target, gain altitude rather than moving away horizontally The MP must always strive to keep the AP in the proper position for a shot on successive passes Small adjustments (maybe not obvious to the pilot) must often be made to get the right angle or position – Lifting the wing, moving the strut out of the frame or making minor course (heading) changes are the most common adjustments 29

30 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Sortie Techniques (3) The AP must know how to direct the pilot: – Keep the directions clear and simple, e.g.: Finding the target: “Target at 10 o’clock” Final alignment on a pass: “Lift your wing” or “Move the strut forward” or “Left 10°” – The pilot also needs positive feedback, especially if you are shooting out of the right- side windows. Use simple words such as “Good, good” to let the pilot know they’re on the right track and speed – Finally, tell the pilot when you are done taking photos on that pass By saying something like “OK, I have the shots” 30 Be Directive - Then Descriptive

31 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Sortie Techniques (4) Notes: – Sometimes wind direction/speed forces the pilot to tilt the wings or crab so much (in order to maintain the planned flight path) that the photographer can’t properly frame all of the photos as planned – In this case, try taking the photos from another direction (e.g., from the northwest rather from the north) or note the difficulty and discuss it during debriefing 31

32 Preparing: O-2215 Imaging Sortie Techniques (5) The AP must decide whether the pictures satisfy all mission requirements Don’t be afraid to admit that you didn’t get a particular shot, and ask the MP to reposition for another try. – Never hesitate to make another pass or to reposition the aircraft to ensure a good photo – Don’t let any other crewmember rush you. Remember, you should take as many photos as you think you need to fulfill mission requirements – Extra photos are better than extra flights 32

33 Preparing: O-2215 Factors Affecting Success (1) Artificial Deadline or Impatience – If you don’t plan sufficient time for all phases of your sortie Hurried shots and risk returning to base without good photos – If you get impatient during any phase of your sortie, you almost guarantee That all your photos won’t be quality photos Or that some photos will be missed – Returning without quality photos of all your targets is a waste of time and effort Another crew will have to be sent out to complete your sortie. 33

34 Preparing: O-2215 Factors Affecting Success (2) Vibration comes from the airplane, its engine and air turbulence To reduce the effects of vibration: – Hold your camera properly – Don't rest any part of the camera or your body against the airframe Keep your arms and elbows from coming in contact with the window sill or armrest Ideally, the only part of the airframe that will be in contact with your body is the seat cushion 34

35 Preparing: O-2215 Factors Affecting Success (3) Haze and fog are the most likely limits to visibility you have to deal with Ways to deal with haze and fog are: – During the ID Pass, see if there is a difference between looking straight down at the target and looking at a lower lookdown angle With haze, higher lookdown angles to the target may be better. With fog, the reverse may be true… – For the best shot, put the sun behind the camera (i.e. behind the photographer’s head) – May try adjusting White Balance to compensate Be sure to reset to Auto when finished If possible, wait for the best visibility instead of shooting through thick haze or other obscuring conditions 35

36 Preparing: O-2215 Factors Affecting Success (4) Focus. Your distance from the ground (altitude) stays roughly the same When using Autofocus (AF), try using the “A” position. Alternates: “S” - This focuses each shot before the shutter will release, even if you change the zoom setting “C” – This continuously focus the lens, no interlock with shutter release – focus may change from shot to shot If you must use Manual focus (e.g. camera won’t auto focus), set the lens at the “Infinity” stop – Unless you're using a lens longer than 200 mm or are at less than 1,000' AGL – Most AF lenses can focus past infinity and have to be focused with the AF system 36

37 Preparing: O-2215 Factors Affecting Success (5) The wind will knock your camera around if you let a telephoto lens extend even a little bit out the window You have to make a conscious effort to lean back away from the window to keep your lens inside 37

38 Preparing: O-2215 Inventory the Equipment Before Departure (1) Perform an inventory to make sure you have everything you need to accomplish the mission: – Camera/GPS batteries charged (including spares) Spare battery terminals must be protected to prevent shorting & fire – Memory cards with sufficient capacity (including spares) – Filters; a UV filter should be installed to protect the lens – Working condition of the camera and lens cap straps – Photo/Recon Log, Target Cards, Recon Sketch Sheet, and Image Pattern Planning sheets (along with a good clipboard) – Cleaning supplies – Seat cushion (to improve your position when shooting through the rear left window photo window) – If necessary, something to use as a “portable darkroom” for reviewing images on the LCD screen (e.g. cloth to cover your head & camera or cardboard to shade the light) 38

39 Preparing: O-2215 Inventory the Equipment Before Departure (2) Adjust Camera: – Turn on the camera and check status. Look for a full battery charge, sufficient space on the media card, and other settings as listed below – Follow the checklist to set up the camera Set the exposure mode, usually Auto/No-Flash Know your shooting mode (Single or Burst) Ensure image type, quality & resolution are set to meet mission requirements Example checklists in backup material – Take a sample picture to ensure correct camera/GPS operation 39

40 Preparing: O-2215 Inventory the Equipment Before Departure (3) Adjust GPS Settings – D90 & D7100: – Connect the GPS unit to the camera and ensure it locks onto the satellites. Check Camera & GPS set to current time (Zulu recommended) – Can use the Nikon Photo Transfer program to sync the camera to the PC (if PC is also on Zulu time) – Check GPS time zone setting and set time zone accordingly – Take & check a test photo to ensure everything works 40

41 Preparing: O-2215 Inventory the Equipment Before Departure (4) Adjust GPS Settings (D200): – Connect the portable GPS unit to the camera and ensure it locks onto the satellites. – Synchronize your camera’s time to that of the GPS (suggest Zulu time). – Ensure the GPS is in the “tracking” mode. 41

42 Preparing: O-2215 Prepare the Aircraft If you know a lookdown angle that works best for you, consider putting a piece of tape on the strut so the pilot can use it to help line up the airplane for photo passes (work together to properly locate the tape) Clean the aircraft windows before you leave – Make sure you have cleaning supplies on board, particularly for multiple sorties Note: For complex missions, a shot of the aircraft ‘N’ number with the camera provides a good “starting image” Particularly if there are images on your media card from a previous sortie. Can also take a photo of your sortie card (the one with mission & sortie numbers). Final check that all the imaging equipment is loaded Arrange your equipment for easy access & safely stowed 42

43 Preparing: O-2215 Backup Material 43

44 Preparing: O-2215 Eye-Fi SD Card Eye-Fi SD card (or equivalent, ~$20-$80) creates a WiFi hotspot that will download copies of photos real time to your PED (Free iOS or Android app required) – Enables immediate review of photos on larger PED screen to ensure optimal capture of objective (framing, focus, exposure, etc.) – Also can be used to zoom in on objective for real time target analysis by the crew – Quality SD/CF card adapters may work for CF card slots on D200 w/correct camera settings? – not tested… 44 Photos saved into Camera Roll Open & zoom in for details

45 Preparing: O-2215 45 Look Down Angle 20  30  45  Side View - 45  isn’t easy! Camera View – 18mm Note: Wheel perspective Camera View – 125mm

46 Preparing: O-2215 Look Down Angle – Ground Practice If your airplane parks at the same location everyday, you can mark the lookdown angle targets on the ground for crew training / familiarization. Alternatively, for temporary parking, you can fashion some blocks of wood cut at the appropriate angles for a sight gage 46 Camera window center @ 4’ 8” 20°30°45° 4’ 8”8’12’ 10” Wood Block = Horizontal distance from window = Look down angle 20°

47 Preparing: O-2215 47 D90/D7100 - Key Controls Summary Playback Button: Press MSC up/down for Shooting Display screens Press MSC L/R to cycle thru photos Menu Button Use MSC & OK Button to navigate thru screens and select settings Multi-Selector (MSC) Control Up/Down Left/Right OK Button Selects a menu item or setting Shooting Display Screens Shooting Menu Screen (GPS data displayed if recorded) More info on SQ website, or: CAP D90 Op Manual: Nikon D90 Op Manual

48 Preparing: O-2215 48 Camera Switch Settings Lens AF: AF Optical Stab.: On Mode Sw: Auto/No Flash Camera AF: AF Camera display should look something like this when set up correctly Power On Shutter Release

49 Preparing: O-2215 49 Shooting Menu Settings Image Size: Large Image Quality: Normal Press Info for display Focus Area Selector Lock: L ISO: 800 Camera time set to ZULU TIME! Use Shooting Menu to Reset to Above Settings If Necessary Single Frame (One release/press) AF-Auto (Focused before release)

50 Preparing: O-2215 Example Checklists – D90/D7100 (1) 50

51 Preparing: O-2215 Example Checklists – D90/D7100 (2) 51

52 Preparing: O-2215 Example Checklists – D200 (1) 52

53 Preparing: O-2215 Example Checklists – D200 (2) 53

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