4Key PointsIdentify the meaning of rhin- and olfactory.
5Brain - Prosencephalon TelencephalonCerebral hemispheresPaleostriatum – primary region in fish, primarily involved with olfactory reflexesNeostriatum – beginning with reptiles, more complex and paleostriatum becomes buriedHyperstriatum – primarily in birds responsible for stereotypical behavior such as migration, courting, nesting
7Brain - Prosencephalon TelencephalonCerebral hemispheres = CerebrumCorpus striatum = Basal nuclei – remnants of paleostriatum buried in mammalian brain, responsible for stereotyped & repetitive movementsCortex – starting with reptiles, billions of neurons that must be folded to fit in skull in mammals
12Brain - Prosencephalon TelencephalonLateral VentriclesCavities in brain that containCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)Formed from blood vessels called choroid plexusCirculates around CNS providing cushion, protection, nutrients
18Brain - Prosencephalon DiencephalonEpithalamus - Pineal body is light receptor in agnathans & endocrine in gnathostomesThalamus – intermediate mass/adhesion; sensory relayHypothalamus – optic chiasma, infundubular stalk for pituitary gland; functions as endocrine, regulates ANS, emotions, water balance, thermostat, hunger, satiety
25Brain Mesencephalon – embryonic midbrain, but term used in adult too Optic lobes – especially well developed in birdsAuditory lobes – auditory reflexesCorpora QuadrigeminaCerebral Peduncles – motor tractsCerebral Aqueduct – for CSF
26Key Points What does the term corpora quadrigemina mean? What structures are included in the corpora quadrigemina that you learned in lab?
31Brain Rhombencephalon Embryonic hindbrain Myelencephalon Medulla oblongataPyramids – crossing of sensory & motor tractsVital reflexes such as breathing, connection between brain & spinal cord for ascending & descending pathways
46Cranial Nerves IV. Trochlear Nerve – motor to extrinsic eye muscles V. Trigeminal nerve – mixed nerve, motor to mastication & pharyngeal arch muscles, sensory to nose & mouthVI. Abducens nerve – motor to extrinsic eye muscles
51Cranial NervesVII. Facial Nerve – motor to facial muscles, salivation, lacrimation, tasteVIII. Acoustic = Vestibulocochlear Nerve – sensory only for hearing & equilibriumIX. Glossopharangeal Nerve – Motor for swallowing, taste
55Cranial NervesX. Vagus Nerve – Sensory for taste, motor to visceral of thorax & abdomen for the Parasympathetic Nervous SystemXI. Accessory Nerve – amniotes only – Motor for swallowing, head movementXII. Hypoglossal Nerve – Amniotes only, motor for tongue